Top 25 Google Maps Interview Questions for 2020

Google Maps Interview Questions

Most frequently asked important Google Maps Interview Questions are described below:

1) What is Google Maps?

Google Maps is a web-based mapping service that is designed and developed by Google. It contains geographical data and provides routes and information to the client.

2) What are the main features of Google Maps?

The following are the main features of Google Maps:

It searches places and provides route directions.
It measures distance and ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival).
It helps in getting traffic information.
It receives verbal instructions.
It provides location sharing and location editing.
It displays the street view.

3) Does Google Maps have APIs?

Yes, Google Maps have APIs. The Google Maps APIs allow developers to embed Google Maps into web pages and access the data from Google Maps. This enables them to display Google Maps on their web-pages with either simple or extensive customization. One can select different products (such as Routes or Places etc.) because of linked API. 

4) What is Google Maps API?

The Google Maps API is a robust tool that allows users to create a custom map or searchable map. It also helps users to add several other features with the created maps. For example- Check-in functions, data synchronization, plan routes, mark or share location, etc.

5) What are the available APIs in Google Maps?

There are several APIs available in Google Maps:

Web APIs

Google Maps JavaScript API
Google Street View Image API
Google Static Maps API
Google Maps Embed API

Web Service APIs

Google Maps Directions API
Google Maps Elevation API
Google Maps Distance Matrix API
Google Maps Geocoding API
Google Maps Geolocation API
Google Maps Time Zone API
Google Maps Roads API
Google Places API Web Service

Mobile APIs

Google Maps Android API
Google Places API for Android
Google Maps SDK for iOS
Google Places API for iOS

6) Which API do we need actually?

The selection of APIs depends upon your requirements. Each API has a different functional use.

7) Is Google Maps API free?

Google Maps APIs are free to use for a wide variety of use-cases, with complimentary usage limits and consistent overage pricing for the use of standard APIs. There are also annual contracts available for business implementations.

APIs without usage limits:

Google Maps Android API
Google Maps SDK for iOS
Google Maps Embed API
Google Erath API

APIs with usage limits:

Google Maps JavaScript API
Google Static Maps API
Google Street View Image API
Google Maps Geocoding API
Google Maps Geolocation API
Google Maps Roads API
Google Maps Directions API
Google Maps Distance Matrix API
Google Maps Elevation API
Google Maps Time Zone API

8) Write down the steps to load Google Maps on a web page.

The steps to load the Google Maps on a web page are given below:

I) Create a simple HTML Page.

<html> 
<head> 
</head> 
<body> 
............. 
</body> 
</html>
Scroll ⇀

II) Load Google Maps API using a script tag between head tags. 

III) Create a container element using a div tag that can hold the Map. It will look like this:

<html>

<!--Load Google Maps API using javascript -->
<head>
    <script src= "https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/js"> </script>
</head>

<body>
<!--Create a container to load Google Map inside -->
    <div id="sampleContainer"  style = "width:900px;  height:580px;"> </div>
.............
</body>

</html>
Scroll ⇀

IV) Define Google Map Options.
Google Maps provides the following options:

Centre
Zoom
Maptypeid

var mapOptions = {
                  center:new google.maps.LatLng(17.240498, 82.287598),
                  zoom:9,
                  mapTypeId:google.maps.MapTypeId.ROADMAP
};
Scroll ⇀

V) Map Object Creation
Map is created by JavaScript class which is known as Map.

var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("mapContainer"), mapOptions);
Scroll ⇀

VI) Load the Map
The Map is loaded either by loadmap() method or adding DOM listner.

google.maps.event.addDomListener(window, 'load', loadMap);
                    OR
<body onload = "loadMap()">
Scroll ⇀

9) How many types of Google Maps are there?

There are four types of Google Maps:

Road Map – It is the default type of Google Maps. It displays the default road map interface.

Satellite – It displays Google Earth satellite-based images.

Hybrid – It displays both the general and satellite views.

Terrain – It displays a physical map including the territory information.

10) Is there any way to change the zoom in Google Maps?

Yes, it is possible to change the zoom value in Google Maps. The value of the zoom can be increased or decreased by changing the zoom feature in the map option.

The following is the syntax where zoom-value can be modified according to the requirements:

var mapOptions = { 
zoom:required zoom value 
};
Scroll ⇀

11) Can we change the language in Google Maps?

Yes, we can change the language in Google Maps. The default language of Google Maps is English. However, it can be changed by adding the language option in the URL. e.g.,

<script src = "https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/js?language=zh-Hans"></script>
Scroll ⇀

12) What are the User Interface controls available in Google Maps?

Google Maps has many user-friendly control options that help users to easily interact with the map. Google Maps allow users to add, customize and disable these controls according to the requirements. The default controls are:

Zoom – There are two buttons ‘’+” and “-” in the bottom right corner of the Google Maps that can be used to control the zoom level of the Map.

Pan – It is used for panning the Map.

Map-Type – It is used to change the view of Google Maps. For example – Satellite view, Road map view or Terrain. The control option is available on the top right corner of the Map.

Street View – It is used to get the street view of the specific location. To use this option, the user needs to drag the Pegman icon.

13) What do you understand by GIS?

The term 'GIS' is an acronym of “Geographic Information System”. It is a framework that is designed to analyze, capture, store, manipulate, and display all types of geographic information. Geography is the key word for Google Maps because it is based on spatial data.

14) Categorize GIS types?

GIS can be divided into the following two categories:

Vector – Spatially referenced data that is represented by a vector. 

Raster – Raster forms (including imagery) and attribute tables, represented in a tabular form.

15) List the components of GIS.

There are six known components of GIS, as listed below:

Hardware
Software
Data
Methods
People
Network

Previously, there were only five GIS components.

16) What does GPS stand for? How does it work? 

GPS stands for ‘Global Positioning System’. It is defined as a satellite-based navigation system. GPS is a network of several satellites (around 30 satellites) orbiting around the Earth. The GPS receiver in our devices intercepts these signals and calculates its distance from four or more GPS satellites. Depending on the distance calculations, it displays the exact position of the device on the Earth. 

17) What is the main difference between GIS and GPS?

GIS is a computer program that helps people to use satellite data, whereas, GPS uses satellites that gather information to display the location of the individuals.

18) Differentiate google maps and google earth.

Google Maps contains all the information about navigation. It provides lightweight point-to-point navigation with only a small hint of the satellite. However, Google Earth displays the full 3D view of satellite data and only a small subset of location information. Google Erath does not provide point-to-point navigation.

19) What is Overlay in Google Maps?

Overlays are objects on the Google Maps that are tied on specified latitude/longitude coordinates. Google Maps provides different types of overlays:

Marker
Polyline
Polygon
Circle and Rectangle
Info Windows
Custom Overlays

20) What is Marker is Google Maps?

Google Maps provides a tool that is used to mark a location on a map, known as a Marker. Marker uses different types of symbols to mark the location with categories. These symbols can be set and customized manually.

21) What is polyline in Google Maps? How a polyline can be added and deleted?

A polyline is a line that is drawn through a series of coordinates in an ordered sequence.
A polyline can be added by passing the object to the following method:
setMap (MapObject)
A polyline can be deleted by passing the null value:
setMap ()

22) What is Info Windows in Google Maps? Write down the important properties of Info Windows.

Info Windows is used to attach any information to the map. It displays content within a popup balloon on the top of a Google Maps. Info windows can be added on Google Maps by using google.maps.InfoWindow class.

Some of the important properties of Info Windows are:

Content – This option allows us to pass our content in string format.

Position – This option allows us to choose the position of the Info Windows.

MaxWidth – This option allows us to specify the maximum width of the Info Windows in pixels.

23) Is there any option to use Google Maps on a web-page without using Google Maps APIs?

Yes, Google Maps also allows users to embed the map without using the Google Maps APIs. Google made it for the people who do not have programming knowledge.

To learn how you can do this, click here.

24) What are the Events in Google Maps?

Events are activities that happen at a specific time period. Google Maps makes use of JavaScript codes to handle events.

25) Which method is used to add Event Listener in Google Maps?

One can use the addListener() method to add an Event Listener in Google Maps.


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Top 25 HTTP Interview Questions for 2020

HTTP Interview Questions

Mostly asked important HTTP Interview Questions are described below:

1) What do you understand by HTTP?

The HTTP is defined as the 'Hypertext Transfer Protocol'. HTTP is such a type of networking protocol that is used for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It is known as the foundation of data communication for WWW (World Wide Web) which means that it transfers the data (such as images, audio, video, text, etc.) on WWW.  It helps in the transmission of hypertext from the client-end to the server-end.

2) How will you describe HTTP Request Messages?

HTTP requests are the messages generated by the client (a user) to initiate an action on the server.
The request message consists of the following:

I) Request Line – It starts with a method token followed by the Request URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), protocol version, and ending with <CR><LF> (a carriage return followed by a line feed). The elements are separated by using the SP characters. The syntax can be defined as:
Request-Line = Method SP Request-URI SP HTTP-Version <CR><LF>

Note: The request line and headers must all end with <CR><LF>. The empty line must contain only <CR><LF> without whitespace.

II) The Resource identified by a request

III) Request Header Fields – These allow the client to process additional information to the server like the request and the client itself. These fields react as request modifiers, with semantics similar to the parameters on a programming language method invocation.

3) What do you know about URI?

URI stands for the 'Uniform Resource Identifier'. It is used to define the identity of something on the web. It can also be used to represent a piece of an URL.

4) What are the request methods available in HTTP?

Following are the request methods available in HTTP:

GETGET method requests a representation of the specified resource. It retrieves information from the origin server or a proxy caching server from specified URI.

HEADHEAD method is almost similar to the GET method. Unlike the GET method, the HEAD method does not retrieve the response body. It only retrieves information written in response headers.

POSTPOST request transfers the data to the server. The data is included in the body of the request. It can create a new resource or update the existing one or both.

PUTPUT method uploads the entire representation of the specified resource. It replaces existing representations of the target resource with the uploaded content.

DELETEDELETE method deletes the specified resource. It removes all the existing representations of the target resource, provided by the URI.

CONNECTCONNECT method establishes a tunnel to the server, which is identified by the provided URI.

TRACETRACE method performs a message loop-back test along the path to the target resource.

OPTIONSOPTION method describes the available communication options or HTTP methods that the server supports for the specified URL. It can also be used to check the functionality of a web server.

PATCHPATCH method is used to apply the partial modification.

5) What are the safe methods?

Some of the request methods are known as safe methods. For example- HEAD GET, OPTIONS, and TRACE. It is because they are only intended to retrieve the information from the server and do not change the state of the origin server.

6) What do you understand by idempotent methods?

The methods PUT and DELETE are known as idempotent methods. It is because multiple identical requests have the same effect as a single request. Other methods such as HEAD, GET, OPTIONS, and TRACE should also be idempotent as HTTP is a stateless protocol.

7) What do you understand by an HTTP request and HTTP response?

Whenever a user interacts with the web-based features of any browser, the HTTP request is generated by the browser. For example, assume that you click on any hyperlink. The browser will send a series of ‘HTTP GET’ requests to get the content from that specific hyperlink. It will try to get all the information required to render the page. These HTTP requests are transmitted to the origin server or a proxy caching server, and the server further generates an HTTP response. HTTP responses are answers to the HTTP requests made by the browser. An HTTP response can also inform a user if any error occurs while processing an HTTP request. 

An HTTP response includes Status-Line, Response Header Fields or a series of HTTP headers, and a 3Message Body.

8) How does a typical HTTP request and response request look?

An HTTP request is a series of lines containing text data that follow the HTTP protocol. A general HTTP GET request might look like this:
GET /welcome_user.txt HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: curl/7.63.0 libcurl/7.63.0 OpenSSL/1.1.l zlib/1.2.11
Host: www.example.com
Accept-Language: en

The HTTP GET requests are generated by the user's browser and sent across the internet.
As soon as the origin server receives an HTTP request, it generates an HTTP response back to the user’s browser. A general HTTP response request might look like this:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 08 Jan 2020 12:14:39 GMT
Server: Apache
Last-Modified: Mon, 20 Jan 2020 11:17:01 GMT
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 13
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Type: text/plain
Welcome, user!

This is how an HTTP request and response request process work.

9) Is HTTP secure? Also, give a reason?

HTTP is not considered as a secure connection. It is because HTTP requests are sent to an origin server or proxy server in plain text, just the same whatever user has entered into the form or input field of the browser's web page. This can be risky in cases where a user enters sensitive data via a webpage or web application.  The sensitive data might include any password, debit-credit card details, or any other personal information.

Therefore, if a website is using an HTTP, then anyone who is monitoring the session can read the text sent or received over HTTP.

10) What do you understand by a Status Code?

The HTTP status code is a standard response code that is issued by the server whenever a client generates a request to the server. In HTTP/1.0 or later, the starting line of the HTTP response is known as the status line. It includes a 3 digits numeric status code (e.g., “404”) and a textual reason phrase (such as “Not Found"). It is used to describe the reason why the web page or other resource could not be loaded properly. The first digit of the HTTP status code specifies one of the five standard classes of responses. The other two digits do not have any role in specification or categorization.

There are usually two types of groups for HTTP status code error:
4xx Client Error
5xx Server Error

11) Describe Persistent connections.

In HTTP/0.99 and 1.0, the connection is terminated after a single request or response pair. In HTTP/1.1, a new mechanism was involved to keep it alive, where an existing connection could be used again for more than one request.

12) Describe header fields present in HTTP.

HTTP headers fields allow the client to process additional information to the server like the request and the client itself. These fields react as request modifiers, with semantics similar to the parameters on a programming language method invocation.

Following are the header fields available in HTTP:

General Headerapplicable for both the request and response message.
Request Headercontains information for the request message.
Response Headercontains the response header information that is sent by the webserver.
Entity Headercontains information about the body of the entity.

13) What do you know about HTTP cURL?

HTTP cURL is a command-line tool. This tool is available on all major operating systems.

14) Define 100 Continue response code in HTTP.

It defines that the client should continue with the request. The interim response notifies the client that the request’s initial part is retrieved successfully.

15) Define 200 OK response code in HTTP.

It defines that the request was successful.

16) Define 201 Created response code in HTTP.

It defines that the request was successful and a resource was created. It also ensures the success of a PUT or POST request.

17) Define 300 Multiple Choices responses code in HTTP.

It defines that multiple options are available for the resource and the client may choose accordingly.

18) Define 400 Bad Request response code in HTTP.

It defines that the server could not understand the request or request was malformed. It generally happens with PUT and POST requests, when the data does not pass the validation or is in invalid syntax.

19) Define the 401 Unauthorized response code in HTTP.

It defines that a user has to perform the authentication before accessing the resource.

20) Define 405 Method Not Allowed response code in HTTP.

It defines that the applied HTTP method is not supported by this resource. For example, if a resource allows the GET method, a user cannot request the POST method to get this resource.

21) Define the 408 Request Timeout response code in HTTP.

It defines that the request has taken a longer time than the server was prepared to wait.

22) Define the 409 Conflict response code in HTTP.

It defines that there is a conflict in request. For example, a client uses PUT request to create the same resource twice.

23) Define 500 Internal Server Error response code in HTTP.

It defines that the server has encountered a situation, where failure occurs due to some unanticipated incident on the server-side.

24) How will you explain secure HTTP?

The HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is a secure version of HTTP. In this protocol, the transmission of data over the WWW is secured and encrypted. It also decrypts the HTTP page or page request that is retrieved by the web-server.

25) Explain an HTTP session.

An HTTP session is defined as the series of network-based request and response transactions. First, an HTTP client initiates a request which further forms a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) to a specific port on a host (in most cases, port 80). An HTTP server working for that specific port waits for a request message from the client-side. As soon as the server receives the message, the server responds back a status line (e.g., "HTTP/1.1 200 OK"), and a message of its own. In case of any error, the server sends an error message and other necessary information. The entire session is known as an HTTP session.


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Coronavirus Vaccine: How soon we can expect?

Coronavirus Vaccine: How soon we can expect?
The disease, COVID-19, caused by the new coronaviruses is new and there is no proper evidence that can explain how it actually behaves and spreads. The disease is spreading very fast around the world, but there are no vaccines that can be used to stop it. So, people are continually looking to know how far are we from getting these life-saving medicines.

How much time it can take to have coronavirus vaccines?

More than 35 organizations and academic institutions are working at breakneck speed to create such a vaccine. The human trial of a vaccine has also started to test the effectiveness against pandemic coronavirus. On March 16, 2020, Government Health Officials announced that the trial for coronavirus has begun and a healthy volunteer from Seattle will be the first person in the U.S. to receive a dose of a new vaccine as a part of clinical testing and trial.

The name of a person to receive the jab of coronavirus vaccine is Jennifer Haller. Jennifer Haller is a 43-year-old woman and mother of two children.

The experts say that it will still take several months to get into the conclusion. However, scientists around the world are tracking research to know if this vaccine, or others also in research, will work.

Note: There are already four types of coronaviruses found in human beings which cause the common cold. Currently, there is no vaccine for any of them.

Vaccines need several tests

According to the reports, most of the vaccine we are using almost took five to fifteen years to be perfect. So, a vaccine may take an entire year, no matter how fast researchers or scientists work. Because vaccines must be rigorously tested to ensure that they will not cause other dangerous side-effects. For that, the vaccines must pass through three iterative phases of clinical trials.

The trial and testing methodology generally consists of three following phases:

1) Testing is conducted on a small number of people (typically between 20 to 80 individuals).

2) Testing is conducted on a larger number of people. It can involve 100 to 200 individuals with different characteristics, such as age and physical health, etc. These include a group of those people who the vaccine is being developed for.

3) Testing is conducted on a huge number of people typically 300 to 3,000. It is conducted to demonstrate that a given vaccine provides the expected medical effects it's intended to.

If the vaccine passes these tests, then only it could be approved for widespread use.

But even if scientists develop a vaccine, there is still a big job ahead to produce vaccines in bulk. Therefore, realistically, the vaccine for coronavirus will not be ready until at least the middle of the next year. In the meantime, researchers and scientists will continue to develop alternative medicines or vaccines to combat the spread of COVID-19.

Will there be side effects of the coronavirus vaccine?

All medicines, including common pain-killers, can be harmful if not taken with care. It is always suggested to take any medicine as prescribed by the physician. However, Researchers are monitoring the development of coronavirus vaccine to prevent any unexpected harm. It is very difficult to know what can be the side effects of an experimental vaccine without the proper clinical trial.

Aren’t drugs effective against coronavirus?

Doctors are already trying different anti-viral drugs to test if they can be beneficial against coronavirus. It was expected that a pair of HIV drugs (ritonavir and lopinavir) may be effective against coronavirus; however, the result was disappointing. Instead, trials are still on in many countries, including the US. 

Conclusion

It is recommended to maintain good hygiene, clean your hands frequently and do not touch your face. Contact your doctor if you notice symptoms of COVID-19. These are the best ways until a vaccine or treatment is ready.

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Everything that you should know about Coronavirus (2020)

Recently, a disease Coronavirus (named as COVID-19) is spreading. It was first started in China from the seafood and meat market in Wuhan. It has infected people in almost more than 70 locations internationally, including the United States. There were positive cases in New York, California, Washington State, and Oregon. The disease has taken over 21,000 lives globally and infected close to 200,000 people internationally. The WHO (World Health Organization) has declared the COVID-19 as a pandemic.

What is coronavirus?

The coronavirus is a family of viruses that is typically found in animals. It is transmitted from animals to humans and then it spreads from one person to another. This virus can cause a range of illnesses in humans which includes common cold, flu, headache, and more critical forms like MERS virus and SARS virus.

In 1960, the researchers first found the first evidence of human coronavirus (HCoV). It was found in the noses of the people suffering from a normal cold. The name ‘coronavirus’ was discovered from the crown-like projections on their surfaces. The term ’Corona’ in Latin is referred to as ‘halo’ or ‘crown’.

What is COVID-19?

The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) started monitoring the outbreak of a new coronavirus, SARS-Cov-2. It was said to be a reason for respiratory illness and named COVID-19.

What caused a coronavirus infection?

The first person infected with COVID-19 had links to an animal and seafood market. Researchers found a conclusion that animals initially transferred the virus to humans. However, more reports were found later where there were infected people with no connection with or exposure to the market. That leads to the result that the virus is spreading from one person to another. It spreads through contact with bodily fluids, can be droplets in a cough. Some reports say that this can also be transmitted to another person if he/she has touched something which an infected person has touched earlier and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes with his/her hand.

Who can be infected?

According to the WHO reports, this virus can cause a critical impact on older adults (over 60 years old), and individuals suffering from other diseases that compromise their immune system. The other groups include young children and women who are pregnant. However, CDC reports that there are mild systems noticed in children.

What are the symptoms of a coronavirus?

The symptoms for COVID-19 can be mild to severe and it may vary from person-to-person. It can take 2-14 days to notice symptoms after exposure. Some of the common symptoms of this disease are:

Fever (According to CDC report, at least 100.4 Fahrenheit) 
Cough
Breathlessness
Potential loss of taste or smell
Runny Nose
Sneezing
Sore throat
Fatigue

People with weak immune systems may notice critical symptoms, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. 

Can a coronavirus be stopped?

Prevention is better than cure.

It is always suggested to take precautions. The best way to stop or slow down this disease is to be well informed about it, like how it spreads and what are the symptoms, etc. Protect yourself and others by following the given rules:

Avoid close contact or meeting in groups. Stay at home as much as possible.

Do not cough into your hands, try to cough with a tissue or use your upper sleeve or elbow.

Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 1 minute. It is very important to clean your hands before eating, after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing. 

Avoid touching your mouth, nose, or eyes.

Drink enough water.

Avoid smoking and smoky areas.

Is coronavirus treatment available?

At this time, there is no cure or treatment available for COVID-19. However, there are many cases where doctors have treated infected people successfully.
There are several ongoing clinical testing and trials for finding the proper cure for this disease. WHO suggests you contact your doctor if you feel symptoms of COVID-19.

Note: CDC does not recommend you to wear a mask if you do not have COVID-19. The mask is suggested to the people infected with COVID-19 so that they prevent spreading the virus to others.

How has it affected the economy?

Most countries have locked down the areas or cities to prevent the spreading of COVID-19. Companies are allowing their employees to work for home. Apart from it, companies are conducting online interviews to hire employees.
Check out our recommendation if you have an online interview: Click here.
Every business from IT to Tourism is struggling due to COVID-19 which has drastically affected the economy of every country.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Coronavirus: Everything Explained (2020)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Coronavirus: Everything Explained
Coronavirus is currently a serious concern for the entire humankind. World Health Organization has already declared it a pandemic. WHO also suggests people to take proper precautions and follow recommended guidelines against coronavirus to reduce exposure and transmission. However, many people are still confused about coronavirus, its symptoms and how it spreads, etc. 


Here, we have covered the frequently asked questions on coronavirus that will surely help people to get a better understanding of this disease. Let’s get started with the basics:

1) What is Coronavirus?

Coronavirus is described as a large group of different viruses that may cause illness in animals or humans. It can cause respiratory infections in humans that might be just a common cold to severe diseases like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (also referred to as MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (also referred to as SARS). 

2) What is COVID-19?

The most recent coronavirus is causing a disease named as COVID-19. The most recent virus and disease were initially found in the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.

3) What are the known symptoms of COVID-19?

The most common and known symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, tiredness, runny nose, nasal congestion, sore throat, aches, and pains, etc. The symptoms vary from person to person. According to the records, there were some infected COVID-19 people without any of these symptoms. And, around 80% of people recover from this disease without any special treatment.
Generally, 1 out of 6 people who get infected with it becomes seriously ill. There can be a critical situation and difficulty in breathing.

4) How does COVID-19 spread?

COVID-19 can spread in people from others who have the virus. It can be transmitted through small droplets from the nose or mouth while the infected person is coughing or sneezing. These droplets usually land on surfaces, objects or directly on the person. By touching such objects and surfaces, then further touching eyes, nose or mouth, a person can catch COVID-19. People can also be get infected with it if they breathe in droplets from a person with COVID-19 who coughs out or exhales droplets. Apart from it, WHO is still researching the ways that can spread COVID-19.

5) Can COVID-19 be transmitted through the air?

According to the reports, it is said that the virus that causes COVID-19 is usually transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets rather than the air. However, research is still on to make this point clear. It is suggested to maintain a distance (around 1 meter or 3 feet) from a person who is sick.

6) How can I protect myself and prevent the spread of COVID-19?

You can protect yourself by taking the precautions given below:
Wash your hands frequently with soap or alcohol-based sanitizer because it kills viruses that may be present on your hands.
Maintain a distance, at least 1 meter, from a person who is coughing or sneezing.
Avoid touching your face, nose, eyes or mouth because these are the main source that can get you affected with this disease.
Stay at home and self-isolate yourself even if you have mild symptoms such as headache, low-fever, slight cough, etc until you recover.
If you feel unwell or you have a fever, cough, difficulty in breathing, call your doctor or nearest medical center in advance. This will protect you as well as stop the spread of the virus. Also, wear a mask.

7) How likely am I to catch COVID-19?

It actually depends on where you live. If there are positive cases of COVID-19 in your area, then you may unlikely to catch this disease. So, it is better to stay at home and avoid any travel or large gatherings. Be aware of the situation where you are currently living or where you are planning to go. Following the precaution efforts will surely help you to reduce the risk of catching COVID-19.

8) Who is at risk of getting severe illness?

There are still many trials and testing out there finding the results on how actually COVID-19 is affecting people. As per the existing reports, it can cause severe illness to older people and people with other medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, or cancer

9) Can we use antibiotics to prevent or treat COVID-19?

No, you should not use Antibiotics to prevent or treat COVID-19 as Antibiotics are only helpful in bacterial infections. They cannot be used against a disease that is caused by a virus. They should only be taken as directed by the physician in case there is a requirement to treat bacterial infection.

10) Is there any vaccine, drug or treatment to stop COVID-19?

As of now, there is no vaccine and no specific treatment to treat COVID-19. People should consult with a doctor as soon as they notice any symptoms of COVID-19. Therefore, they can receive care to relieve symptoms.

11) How much time it will take to make a COVID-19 vaccine?

There are several trails running by different countries. Possible vaccines and drug treatments are under testing. They are being tested through clinical trials. WHO is also working with different medical authorities to develop vaccines and medicines to treat COVID-19.

12) Can a mask protect me from COVID-19?

It is recommended to wear a mask only if you are ill with COVID-19 or looking after someone who may have COVID-19. There is no requirement of masks in other scenarios. 

13) What is the incubation period and how long it can be?

The ‘incubation period’ is the time between catching the virus and starting to have the symptoms of the disease. The incubation period for COVID-19 can be 1-14 days. In most cases, the symptoms start in five days.

14) Can I get infected with COVID-19 from an animal source?

Coronaviruses are usually found in animals. However, people get infected with these viruses which may have spread to other people. There are no possible animal sources of COVID-19 yet.

It is recommended to avoid direct contact with the animals and surfaces that are in contact with animals. Avoid consuming raw or uncooked animal products to ensure safety.

15) Can I get infected with COVID-19 from my pet?

There is currently no evidence that a pet can transmit COVID-19.

16) How long does the COVID-19 virus survive on surfaces?

There are no proper reports to calculate the surviving time of the COVID-19 virus. However, based on studies on other coronaviruses, it is assumed that it may persist on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days. This actually varies according to the different conditions such as type of surface, the temperature of the atmosphere, etc.

17) Is it safe to make use of e-commerce sites or online food sites to receive a package?

Yes, there is a low risk of catching a virus that causes COVID-19 through a package that has been moved, traveled, and exposed. However, it is suggested to get your package delivered to the door on a clean surface or table and not to touch it at least for a day.

18) Is there any way to confirm whether someone has COVID-19?

The only effective way to confirm it is to get tested and have that test be positive.

19) Should I go to a doctor if I have a fever or a cough?

It is suggested to stay at home at least for seven days if you notice a fever or cough. Make a distance from other people or family members until you recover. If you get worse or symptoms last longer than seven days, you should call in a helpline number according to your country or city.

20) What are the other things that I should avoid?

Avoid smoking, wearing multiple masks, and taking antibiotics because these are all not effective against COVID-19. It can be harmful.

These questions and answers will be updated as more is known about COVID-19, so, keep checking this page for more questions.

To get instant answers, you can ask your questions via the Contact form or type ‘hi’ and send it to +41794123236 on WhatsApp. The WHO will answer your questions on WhatsApp.

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Hand Sanitizer or Hand Wash: Which is more effective against Coronavirus?

Hand Sanitizer or Hand Wash: Which is more effective against Coronavirus?
In the time of coronavirus, it is very important to keep your hands germ-free to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

However, people are getting confused between hand sanitizer and hand wash by soap or water. In most countries that are fighting against coronavirus, there is either no stock for hand sanitizers or available in outrageously inflated price and that too in a limited quantity. Even, it is very difficult to get it from e-commerce sites due to no stock availability. 

But the question is- 
“Is hand sanitizer more effective than washing hands with soap and water to prevent the spread of coronavirus?”

In this article, we have discussed the effectiveness, appropriate usage, and the right selection of hand cleaning products that will give you protection against COVID-19.

Why is it important to clean hands to prevent the spread of coronavirus?

The thing is that a disease COVID-19 caused by coronaviruses is a new illness. There is no proper specification or documentation available for how exactly it spreads. However, evidence suggests that the novel coronavirus is generally transmitted through cough droplets and spread from person to person. The droplets can land on anything, from any object to surfaces to foods. It can live for hours or days depending on the conditions. 

If people touch anything on which those droplets have landed before, and then touch their face, nose or eyes, they can get infected with this virus. So, it is very important to clean your hands when you return to your safe place (e.g., your home, your work station, or your desk, etc.).

How do soap and water work against viruses?

Under the microscope, coronaviruses seem to be surrounded by pointy spires, which appear as a crown (corona). These crowns are further surrounded by the layer made of lipids (in general ‘fat’). If that outer layer is removed, the viruses get physically deactivated.

It is possible to break the particles with soap. Soap can be a good option to dissolve the lipid layer surrounding the viruses. It also breaks up the other weak bonds within the virus. As a result, the virus effectively falls apart. Soap includes fat-like compounds known as amphiphiles, which are almost similar to the lipids that are found in the virus membrane.

Therefore, the soap comes into contact with these lipids and creates a solid bond with them, which forces them to disconnect from the virus. It further forces the virus to disengage from the surface of the hands.

How does a hand sanitizer work against viruses?

Hand sanitizer can be beneficial against coronavirus if used properly. Alcohol in a hand sanitizer is a kind of a different chemical property. It can break the germ membranes if it gets into direct contact with the bacteria or virus. Alcohol can be pretty good at killing germs, but it does not wash them away.

Which is more effective?

Experts recommend people to wash hands with soap and water. It is considered as a gold standard for preventing infectious diseases (such as flu and diarrheal diseases), and other harbor nasty pathogens, including the coronavirus. The new coronavirus comes encased in a layer of fat (or you can say a lipid envelope), which soap can break apart. It will reduce the chances to be infected. Besides, people can also use liquid soap in place of bar soap. Since bar soap and liquid soap both are equally effective, but, it is suggested not to use bar soap which is available in public places (such as public washrooms).

The hand sanitizers are suggested only in those situations where people cannot wash their hands with soap and water. Make sure to use only those hand sanitizers which contain at least 60% alcohol because it’s the alcohol that’s required to kill viruses.

Note: Hand sanitizer or hand wash is of no use if not used properly.

How to clean hands?

The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) suggests people to use clean running water of any temperature to wet the hands before applying the soap.  So, wet your hands with water, lather them with soap and scrub for at least 20 seconds. Scrubbing with your hands is important to generate soap bubbles, which dissolve the chemical bonds that allow bacteria, viruses and other types of germs to stick to the hand surfaces. Make sure to focus on places, such as the back of your hands, between fingers, and under the nails, because there are the places where microbes tend to build up. Rinse them thoroughly with clean running water. Rinsing your hands washes away all the germs that have been killed by soap molecules. Dry your hands well with a disposable towel, and use that towel to turn off the tap before throwing it away. 
According to reports, ‘Paper towels are superior to air dryers’. It is because these towels can dry your hands more quickly and thoroughly when compared with air dryers and germs can easily be transferred to and from wet hands than dry.

Summary

Since using hand sanitizer can be a smart way to slow or prevent the spread of viruses, it is still recommended to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. 
Wash your hands frequently for at least 20 seconds. 
If you are bounded to use hand sanitizer, then make sure that your sanitizer contains at least 60% of alcohol. 
Make your hands dry before you apply hand sanitizer. Cover every surface of both hands thoroughly with the sanitizer and rub it gently until dry.
Do not apply sanitizer in your hands if they are greasy or dirty. In such cases, sanitizers are less effective.

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RPA Tutorial: Learn Robotic Process Automation (2020)

RPA Tutorial

Our RPA Tutorial will help you to get a clear idea about the robotic automation. We have covered all the basic and advanced concepts of RPA. We have designed this tutorial in such a way that it will help beginners as well as professionals.

This tutorial will help you to understand all the basic concepts of RPA along with various related topics such as RPA Features, RPA Applications, RPA Tools, RPA Architecture, RPA Life Cycle, Working of RPA, RPA Services, RPA Tools, RPA Interview Questions, etc.

Prerequisites

There is no special requirement to learn the concepts of RPA. You just need to have some basic understanding of using Windows machines and applications. However, we have a well built and organized series of topics under the RPA tutorial to help you in learning RPA concepts from scratch.

Audience

Tutorials on TutorialsMate are designed to help beginners and professionals. Our RPA Tutorial will help beginners to master in Robotic Process Automation.

Problem

Our tutorial is designed by professionals, and we assure you that you will not find any kind of problem. In case there is any mistake, we request you to submit the problem using the contact form or directly send us a mail at TutorialsMate.

What You Will Learn

Index


To learn Robotic Process Automation, we need to first understand the definition of the term 'Automation'. Let's start with it:

What is Automation?

Automation is a technique that can be used to make any task, process or system to operate itself. The word automation itself an answer for what is automation? As the name suggests, it provides support to automate different tasks such as data entry, invoice generation, etc. The primary aim of automation is to add simplicity, boost efficiency and enhance reliability.

The automation technique initially came into existence in 1920. However, it could not get much popularity at that time. It actually got popularity in the starting weeks of 1990.

There are basically four types of automation categories:

Macro Recorders
Application-level Macro Recorders
Business Process Automation (Also referred to as ‘BPA’)
Robotic Process Automation (Also referred to as ‘RPA’)

What is RPA?

RPA Definition

“RPA is an acronym of ‘Robotic Process Automation’. RPA is a technology that uses software programs to mimic human actions. It automates the human tasks that are repetitive and rule-based. For example- Data Entry, Data Validation, Invoice Generation, etc.”

RPA

Let's understand it with a real-life example:

Just assume, you need to post some articles on different social platforms at a specific time every day. So, there are generally two ways you can use to complete this task. You can either do it manually yourself or hire an employee to perform this tedious task every day. The only job for the employee will be to post your articles every day. It will cost you a lot if you keep doing it for years and your employee will get bored with it. Isn’t it?

Besides, you can automate this entire process with the help of RPA. It will help you to simply create a software robot that will perform this repetitive task for you. It will definitely save your money and time. On the other hand, you can take help from your employee for other business tasks that need human intelligence.
So, mimicking human actions to complete a bunch of sequential steps that lead to meaningful activity, with minimal or no human intervention is known as ‘Robotic Process Automation’.

Robotic Process Automation interacts with the existing IT infrastructure with the help of software bots (also known as robots.). These RPA bots complete the tasks at a rapid speed and make zero mistakes. They can also interact with the websites, user-portals, etc. and automatically log into applications, open e-mails and attachments, perform other defined tasks, and then log out.

Note: It is very important to note that RPA does not use physical robots. There are no physical robots doing labor-intensive human tasks such as cleaning the house or picking up heavy goods etc. The term ‘robot’ in ‘RPA’ is just a virtual robot that mimics human actions to automate repetitive computing tasks or digital business processes. 

RPA Features

The most features of Robotic Process Automation are:

Security – With its strong user access management system, RPA allows organizations to assign specific permission to the users. RPA tools include rule-based security options that secure the data against unauthorized access. The entire data is accessed by the bots is encrypted to ensure security against malicious tampering. Furthermore, RPA also offers detailed logging information of users and the insight of executed tasks.

Powerful-analytical Suite – RPA provides a rich-analytical suite that allows organizations to discover the performance of the robot workforce. It provides a platform to track basic metrics on robots, servers, workflows from anywhere.

Bot Creator – With Bot Creator, one can easily create software bots. It provides options like simple mouse-clicks, keystrokes, and inbuilt recorder components. Some RPA tools include Task Editor to create and edit the software bots.

Source Control – Most of the RPA tools include a control room that can be used for scheduling bots, handling bots, maintaining user logs and bot activities, etc.

Easy Deployment and Integration – RPA allows simple deployment across different virtual machines, terminal services, and cloud. Its deployment feature is so powerful that it can automatically deploy hundreds of software bots. Multiple bots can be assigned to execute different tasks in a single process while processing a high volume of data.

Besides, RPA provides easy integration to easily merge with different 3rd party applications in the digital infrastructure of the business. 

Script-Less Automation – Most RPA tools offer code-free automation which means users can easily create software bots without the requirement of any programming skills.

RPA Use Cases

The following list is divided into five different fields according to the use-cases of Robotic Process Automation:

I) General business processes and activities

II) Processes involved in commercial functions
• Sales
• CRM (Customer Relationship Management)

III) Processes involved in support functions
Technology
Finance
HR
Operations
Procurement

IV) Industry-specific processes
Banking
Insurance
Telecom
Healthcare
Retail

V) Robotics process applications for personal use (e.g., digital assistant)

RPA Architecture

The architecture of Robotic Process Automation can be easily understood with the help of the following structure:

RPA Architecture


The architecture includes different tools, platforms, and other infrastructure elements that completely form an RPA tool.

Let’s explain each block of this structure diagram:

Application under Robotic Process Automation

RPA is well suited for enterprise applications such as ERP, SAP, and many other record processing applications. These applications are generally data-intensive and data-centric. These types of applications can be easily loaded with repetitive tasks.

RPA Tools

RPA tools are used to develop software robots to automate tasks on different platforms such as Desktop, Web, and Citrix environments. The software bots can be trained with inbuilt functions like recording, configuring, and enhancing the programming or coding logic (i.e., loops, conditions, etc.).

The most popular RPA tools are Blue Prism, UiPath, and Automation Anywhere.

RPA Platform

RPA software bots are stored in a shared repository which can be easily shared across different software robots libraries. RPA platform is also responsible for scheduling, distributing and monitoring the execution of software bots. It also provides meaningful insights of developed software bots and keeps their execution statistics.

RPA Execution Infrastructure

RPA Execution Infrastructure is considered as a bank that contains several parallels or virtual lab machines. These machines can be controlled according to their usage patterns. The process of scaling up or down the number of machines in parallel is also performed without the requirement of any human intervention.

Configuration Management

Configuration management is used to update software bots to a newer version. Since RPA bots are reusable across the libraries, therefore, the branching and merging of these software bots can also be performed with the help of configuration management.

RPA Life Cycle

RPA life-cycle includes the following phases of automation process:

Discovery Phase – RPA business analyst discovers the client’s requirements. Examines if the processes can be automated? Also, analyze the complexity of the processes.

Development Phase – RPA developers create automation scripts (bots) with the help of RPA tools according to the requirements. 

User Acceptance Phase – The developed bots are tested by the testing team (might be a separate team or a dedicated team).

Deployment and Maintenance Phase – Tested bots are deployed in the environments so; the users can automate the tasks. 

Execution of Bots – After deployment and maintenance, the bots are executed to ensure that the implementation is done successfully according to the requirements of the client.

How RPA works?

The software bots are operated by running a series of predefined workflow tasks. These tasks basically give instructions to the software bots and inform them regarding their next task.  When the complete workflow is configured into the RPA system, the software can then automatically process the workflow and complete the specified tasks. Software bots can handle multiple tasks of a single process as per the requirements.

RPA bots interact with the systems via integrations and screen scraping, which allow them to perform actions in the same way that a human could do.

RPA Services

The following are the most common services of Robotic Process Automation:

Business Readiness Analysis
Business Case Discovery
Proof of Concept (POC)
RPA Implementation
Legacy System Integration
Web Extraction Service
RPA Monitoring and Support

RPA Examples

There are several examples in our day-to-day tasks. The most common examples of Robotic Process Automation are listed below:

Order Processing
Invoice Generation
Web Site Scraping
Data Management
Forms Processing
Credit Card Applications
Account Reconciliation
Call Center Operations
Payroll Processing
Order Shipment Notification
Dispute Resolution
Onboarding Employees or Customers
Incoming customer E-mail Query Processing

RPA Companies / RPA Vendors

In an RPA market, RPA is one of the emerging technologies. It is very important to select the right vendor to get the expected return. Some of the popular RPA vendors are listed below:

Blue Prism
UiPath
Automation Anywhere
Pegasystems
NICE
Contextor (acquired by SAP)
Workfusion
Softomotive
Kofax Kapow

RPA Tools

The most popular RPA tools are:

UiPath

It offers windows-based desktop process automation which includes desktop automation, web automation, Citrix automation, etc.

Blue Prism

It is said that the term 'RPA' was initially innovated by the Blue Prism Group. It supports automation of different repetitive, rule-based digital business processes efficiently.

Automation Anywhere

AA offers a user-friendly platform to automate the complex processes.

RPA Challenges

Availability of skilled resources
Required support from businesses 
Immediate support from RPA vendors
Selection of right use-cases for automation
Understanding of the complexity of the processes
Lack of scheduled maintenance plans

RPA vs AI

RPA (Robotic Process Automation) AI (Artificial Intelligence)
RPA allows organizations to use software robots to mimic human actions and automate digital processes. AI is the simulation of human intelligence in a system that can think like humans and make the necessary decisions.
RPA robots can automate the tasks only according to the predefined rules and regulations. AI is based on ‘thinking’ and ‘learning’ can make appropriate decisions on its own.
RPA is a rule-based technology. It automates repetitive and mundane business processes. AI consists of different technologies such as machine learning and natural language processing etc. It helps in decision making and can do a lot more than just automating rule-based, repetitive tasks.

RPA Jobs and Future

RPA is an emerging technology, and it is increasing in different sectors. The future seems to be bright for RPA because it has several advantages and benefits over manual tasks. Anyone can start a career in RPA with some basic training. According to the reports, RPA is going to have an economic impact of nearly $6 trillion by 2025.

An RPA developer can be assigned to perform the following roles:
Process Designer
Automation Architect
Production Manager

The demand for the RPA professional is surely going to rise in upcoming days. The salary packages for the RPA developers are very high (nearly twenty to thirty percent higher) when compared to the software designers, engineers, etc. 


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