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Why is my Computer so Slow: Troubleshooting Guide

Think of a moment when you are working on a computer and suddenly it all gets stuck somewhere and you have to start it again, you could not save your work. This is one of the most frustrating moment while working on a computer and you may probably feel like - why? Why is my computer so slow?

Here, we have discussed all the reasons that can slow down your computer system. I would suggest you proceed one by one. This will help you find out the real problem messing up with your system. Fix all the problems you find and keep your computer in motion with your ethics.

What are the reasons for slow computer system?

Technically, an operating system decides or sequences tasks or processes on any computer system. It is also responsible for controlling drive space, controlling memory and processing power, etc., in all running programs. Although operating systems are developed in such a way that they can handle computer performance automatically, there are some factors listed below that can reduce the performance.

Usually, when we buy or setup a new system, it works very fast. But, as time passes, we begin to notice that the performance is decreasing dramatically. So, what has changed now? This question always bothers the mind and makes any simple task very specific or complex. Let's get straight to the reasons:

Too Many Startup Programs

If your computer is taking longer booting time than before, there may be a lot of startup programs. As soon as you start your computer, these programs start automatically and keep running in the background, reducing the overall performance of your computer system.

Typically, when you purchase or setup a computer system, there are only system apps and services with permission to run automatically at startup. But, many programs you install come with the option to run automatically on startup. Over time, you have a lot of programs at startup, which reduces overall performance and increase booting time.

However, some programs such as antivirus and firewall, etc., are required to run at startup.

Running Out of Disk Space (SSD or HDD)

When the disk (hard disk drive or solid-state drive) memory is getting full, the system slows down. This is because a computer system needs a significant amount of free space to use swap files or virtual memory, prevent fragmentation, create temporary files, and many other things.

To ensure that your computer is not slow due to full drive storage, make sure that you do not fill it more than 95%.

Also Read: Difference between SSD and HDD

Animations and Special Visual Effects

Windows and many other operating systems come with special visual effects such as animations and shadows, which slow down processing. However, you can use accordingly whether you like smooth performance or best appearance by configuring the settings.

Unwanted Temporary Files

A computer can create many temporary files when you run a program. It also includes files that programs and operating systems use to store temporary data, such as programs that download files when installing software updates. These temporary files can be removed from the computer to free up space and improve performance.

Running Multiple Programs Simultaneously

One of the biggest advantages of a computer is multitasking, which means that you can do multiple tasks at once. But, at some point, it can slow down your system performance. Depending on the amount of RAM you have, you can run many programs as long as there is free RAM. As soon as the RAM is full, your system will slow down considerably.

Why is my computer so slow - Running multiple program simultaneously

Apart from this, running multiple programs at the same time can also increase your CPU load. Because the operating system works harder and uses more of the CPU for memory management, this results in a reduction in processing power.

Unnecessary Background Processes

This is one of the biggest factors slowing down your computer performance. As we discussed above, your system may contain unnecessary startup programs and activities that can slow down the overall speed of the system.

Besides, some programs are also developed in such a way that they continue to run in the background even after being closed. They continue to use the RAM and processing power of computer systems unnecessarily.

Too Many Add-Ons/ Plugins in Browser

If you install too many add-ons with your browser, you will eventually slow down the overall browsing experience. Because the more add-ons you install, the more amount of RAM will be used. Some extensions can usefully enhance your web experience, but keeping too many of them will be a culprit in slowing down your system performance by consuming processing power and memory.

Unfortunately, many programs you install secretly install unwanted extensions. This may include search engines, ad-blockers, popup blockers, etc. However, one can simply uninstall them via browser's settings.

Using Several Tabs on a Browser

Sometimes, this can also be a reason why your computer is so slow. When you open multiple tabs in a browser, it is saved in RAM. If you do not have a sufficient amount of free RAM, you run out of room to process anything, resulting in a decrease in overall system performance.

Malware or Virus Attacks

Computer viruses can be another reason that can slow down your PC. Viruses, malware, and spyware can mess everything up, from deleting your files to opening your browser, taking you to phishing sites, hijacking your system, etc.

If your system is affected, you may notice some unusual activities such as auto advertisements, popups, auto launches of programs, etc. Such unwanted activities can lead to poor system performance as well as misuse of your data.

Also Read: Types of Computer Viruses

An Overzealous Antivirus

Your antivirus can run in the background and take a large amount of RAM and CPU. It is not recommended to close or stop it from running in the background as it is an important program to protect your privacy and data. However, the scheduling system scans overnight or when your computer is ideal may be a good option.

Computer System Overheated

Make sure that your computer and processor do not heat too much. Because, when you use your system longer with heavy usage, it can overheat. When the heat level reaches its maximum level, the computer system slows down. This tends to reduce processor speed to help compensate for heat-related issues automatically. Sometimes, your system can reboot automatically due to overheating.

Besides, dust, dirt, or hair blockage can prevent air vents from relasing air, resulting in an increase in system temperature. Make sure that you keep your system and its surroundings clean.

Running in Power Saver Mode

Most laptops include the option to adjust power settings to control system performance and battery usage. It usually includes three features, such as "Balanced, Power Saver and High Performance". If your system is running in power saver mode, you may encounter problems with performance because your operating system reduces the speed of system components to provide increased battery backup rather than focusing on performance.

To maximize system performance, it is recommended to use a "balanced" mode for efficient performance, or prefer "high performance" mode with charging while gaming.

Computer needs to be Rebooted

Sometimes, your computer system may simply ask to restart. This usually happens when the system has installed Windows Update or you have uninstalled any software and the system needs a restart to remove residual files or unnecessary registry files. If you use without restarting the system, you may notice a performance decrease.

In addition, there may be many system activities or background processes that are hung up for a myriad of reasons. Instead of searching and shutting down all processes one by one, it is better to restart the system to easily fix all of them. Rebooting a system fixes most problems.

Running Out of RAM (Random Access Memory)

In most cases, your system slows down due to low RAM. If your system has less RAM, it is likely to work slowly as programs and system activities will not get the required amount of RAM. When RAM runs out, the system becomes too slow. In this situation, the computer system starts using disk space as virtual memory (swap memory) to balance performance.

Note: Although you can use disk space as virtual memory, upgrading RAM would be a better option as disk drives (HDD or SSD) are not as fast as RAM.

Also Read: Types of Computer Memory

Disk Drive is Failing

Disk drives usually have a lifetime. Slow working of a disk drive is a common problem at the end of its lifetime. The reason for this in most hard drives is because there are moving components inside the HDDs. If you leave them by mistake or they fall within the range of strong magnetic fields, it can lead to hard disk failure.

Besides, solid-state drives do not face such issues as there are no moving parts inside them. However, it is stated that they have a lower number of R/W, resulting in shorter lifetimes than HDDs.

Read Detailed Guide: SSD vs HDD: Which is better?
Why is my computer so slow - Hard drive is failing

Old or Fragmented Hard Drive

Outdated or fragmented hard drives are also crucial factors that can significantly reduce the overall performance of your computer system. This is actually a disk condition in which files are stored in pieces scattered around the disk. In this case, the data is accessed from different parts of the disk (memory location) to be combined as a single file. At some point, it reduces the speed of the system as the overall time increases while reading the data.

Outdated Processor

Most computer programs receive frequent updates with more features included with them. The minimum requirements also change with each major update. In some scenarios, you may be trying to run latest software, programs or games with your old CPU that are no longer suitable to achieve smooth performance accordingly. It can perform at a slower rate with the same programs that worked properly before the update. In such situations, it is recommended to overclock (when supported) or upgrade the processor (when possible, such as for PCs).

How to fix a slow computer?

Now, you should already know the reason why your computer is so slow. The next thing you need to do is to fix those specific problems.

For example:

If your computer has too many startup programs, you can disable them accordingly.
If your computer is running out of disk space, simply delete unwanted files. Disk cleanup may also be a good option.
Try to use minimal animations and visual effects.
Delete temporary files regularly.
Check background processes using Task Manager and disable third-party programs or software accordingly. Avoid making changes to system processes.
Keep browser plugins to a minimum and prefer a limited number of tabs at a time.
Use good quality anti-virus with real-time protection. But make sure that it is not taking too much RAM or CPU. If this happens, better change your anti-virus.
Make sure your computer does not heat up so much. If it does, check out its air vents.

Although there are many other things to fix, following the above fixes will surely keep your computer system running at an optimal level, at least compared to before.


Sometimes, it is easy to fix problems and speed up your computer. But this is possible only when there is a problem with settings or some other software related problem. But sometimes, you have no other option than to update the components/hardware of your computer system or go for whole new setup.

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VoIP Full Form: Meaning of VoIP in Computer

VoIP is a general term used in the field of communication. VoIP technology is mostly seen in companies and businesses to help in sharing business information. Although VoIP technology is not commonly seen in homes, it is quite popular all over the world and connects people in one way or another. Since the word is an acronym, there is a full form of VoIP.

In this article, we are discussing essential topics about the VoIP technology, such as the VoIP Full Form, definition, history, features, protocols, advantages, disadvantages, and other details.

What You Will Learn

What is the full form of VoIP?

The meaning or full form of VoIP is “Voice over Internet Protocol” or “Voice communication Over Internet Protocol”. It is also known as IP telephony. Based on the VoIP setup or environment, the service providers may offer different services. In short, we can say that VoIP technology is primarily designed to offer phone services over the Internet, making communication digital.

VoIP Full Form

The full form of VoIP can be explained as:

V Voice
O Over
I Internet
P Protocol

Let’s talk about what exactly the VoIP is:

What is VoIP?

VoIP is defined as a method or group of technologies that enable the transmission of voice and multimedia content over a broadband/Internet connection instead of traditional analog phone lines. Some VoIP services offer to call only people using those services, while others may provide the facility to call anyone with a telephone number, be it a local mobile, or long-distance international number.

Generally, VoIP is known to work on computer systems with an Internet connection and VoIP software. However, it is also available with specific VoIP phones and even with the traditional phones connected to VoIP adapters. VoIP is known by many other names, such as Internet telephony, Internet phone, broadband phone, IP technology, and digital phone.

Brief History about VoIP

VoIP technology is not new, there have been constant developments to make it reliable, effective, and productive in real-time. Some notable developments for VoIP are mentioned below:

In 1973, Danny Cohen was the first who is credited for demonstrating a form of packet voice over an early ARPANET. In 1974, the very first real-time conversation was held successfully over ARPANET.

In 1977, a protocol named UPD (User Diagram Protocol) was integrated to carry real-time traffic.

In 1991, the first VoIP application named Speak Freely was released as Public Domain by John Walker and Brian C. Wiles.

In 1992, InSoft Inc. released a desktop conferencing product and named it Communique. It included VoIP and video conferencing. That’s the reason why InSoft is known for creating the 1st generation of commercial VoIP services in the USA.

In 1993, the first video telepresence system, called Teleport, was released by David Allen and Herold Williams.

In 1995, the first-ever commercial (First For-Profit) VoIP application, known as Internet Phone, was released by VocalTec. It was widely available to customers. Using this VoIP software, one user can call another over the internet connection and talk through the mic and speaker. However, at that time, both the users needed the same software to communicate with each other.

In 2005, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) instructed VoIP vendors to add support for emergency calls.

Many codecs were introduced from time to time to enhance or extend the features of VoIP services. For example, G.729 (in 2006), SILK (in 2009), AAC-LD (in 2010), etc.

VoIP accessibility continued to expand throughout the 21st century and added many ways of communication, such as PC to PC, PC to Phone, Phone to Phone, IP Phone to Phone, Phone to IP Phone, IP Phone to IP Phone, and so on.

All of these developments helped create a stable VoIP service for consumers and businesses to operate over an Internet connection. These continued developments resulted in a technology that enables users to make and accept telephone calls in the same way as they would using the public switched telephone network (PSTN). VoIP is an essential part of most businesses these days.

Features of VoIP

Some essential features of VoIP technology are discussed below:

Limitless Calling: With VoIP technology, one can make unlimited national and international phone calls.

Online Faxes: VoIP allows users to send and receive faxes online without the need for additional hardware or wires.

Excellent Voice Quality: Since VoIP uses high-speed internet, it typically produces a loud and clear voice for both caller and the receiver.

Conferencing: VoIP can be combined over dedicated conference lines to establish conference calls or meetings between multiple people simultaneously. It encourages teamwork and enables easy collaboration.

Smartphones Connectivity: Most VoIP service providers also provide applications that can be installed on smartphones, be it iOS, Android, or Windows.

Messaging: One of the core features of VoIP is text messaging. Because of messaging, staff can easily communicate with each other and their target customers over text messaging or chats.

CRM Integration: VoIP offers CRM (Customer relationship management) integration that increases productivity using the deeply integrated workflow.

How does VoIP work?

The working process of VoIP is almost the same as that of a traditional or regular phone, but unlike the means of telephone wires, VoIP uses an Internet connection to deliver services. It typically converts voice input into multiple data packets that travel over the Internet like other digital data (e.g., text, pictures, documents, etc.). If the receiver is using a regular phone, the signals are converted back into telephone audio signals before being delivered to the receiver.

Packets of voice/sound data travel instantaneously over a public or private Internet network while being routed from sender to receiver. Nowadays, any landline and mobile phone that can connect to the Internet may be used to make and accept VoIP calls. In addition, a computer system with an Internet connection, mic, speakers, and VoIP software works best for VoIP calls.

VoIP Full Form: How VOIP works

Note: Since VoIP technology uses an internet connection instead of analog telephone lines, there may be the same lags or delays that the other digital data face when the internet bandwidth is negatively capped or decreased.

Equipment required for VoIP

Specifically, a typical VoIP connection requires computer systems, VoIP applications, fiber optic, and Internet/broadband connectivity. The VoIP applications (software) environment allows users to use dialer and other typical tools directly on the computer. However, the computer must have a microphone and speakers to establish voice communication between the sender and the receiver.
Additionally, special VoIP phones or traditional phones with adapters can be attached to ease of operation.

VoIP Protocols and Standards

The endpoints of VoIP mainly take advantage of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard codecs. Various specifically designed codecs are also used. Some essential VoIP protocols and standards are explained below:

711: It is one of the common standards used for transmitting uncompressed packets.

729: It is another common standard used mainly for compressed packets.

TCP: TCP, short of Transmission Control Protocol, typically breaks down any particular message into multiple smaller packets. Moreover, the Internet Protocol (IP) takes control of sending and the delivery of packets throughout the call.

ITU T.38: This protocol mainly helps in sending faxes over a VoIP network in real-time. This way, it takes part in non-voice communications.

RTP: RTP, short of Real-Time Protocol, is a user-level protocol that mainly helps to encapsulate data into packets time-stamped containing relevant information in order to provide proper playback of audio. It comes into play after the voice has been encapsulated into the Internet Protocol (IP).

SRTP: SRTP, short of Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol, works similar to the RTP, but in an encrypted way.

SIP: SIP, short of Session Initiation Protocol, is a signaling protocol that helps to initiate, maintain and terminate the real-time sessions.

248: It is a typical protocol used to describe a Gateway Control Protocol that further helps in defining an architecture to create multimedia applications.

323: It is one of the signaling protocols that help in controlling and managing calls.

XMPP: XMPP, short of Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, is mainly used to maintain contact lists, instant messaging, and presence information.

SCCP: SCCP, short of Skinny Client Control Protocol, is another common signaling and control protocol that helps establish communication between IP devices and Cisco Unified Communications Manager. It is a Cisco Systems proprietary and also known as 'Skinny'.

SDP: SDP, short of Session Description Protocol, mainly takes part in initiation as the announcement of sessions during multimedia communications and WebSocket transports.

Popular VoIP Service Providers

Some of the popular VoIP service providers or vendors are listed below:

RingCentral MVP
Ooma Office
8x8 X Series
AT&T Business
Microsoft Teams Phone, etc.

Advantages of VoIP

Following are some of the common advantages of VoIP:

VoIP technology provides additional features and services compared to traditional phones. For example, call recording, forwarding, queue, custom caller ID, voicemail over email, etc.

With VoIP, we can save on telephone line costs. This means that we can only pay for the broadband connection while getting the benefit of internet and telephone calls.

Using VoIP, users can make calls using their computers, VoIP phones, or even traditional phones with associated adapters. These multiple connectivity options increase productivity in business operations.

VoIP takes advantage of uncompressed data to produce better audio or voice quality.

VoIP charges are comparatively lower than the traditional phone/landline bills, especially for long calls and international calls.

VoIP is comparatively more secure than traditional calls.

VoIP provides integration capability with other relevant applications.

VoIP uses a single network, the Internet, to carry voice or data without the need for wires.

Disadvantages of VoIP

Following are some of the common disadvantages of VoIP:

Some VoIP services do not work during a power outage and the service providers are not even successful in providing backup power. This interrupts the calling.

Some VoIP vendors do not allow direct contact with emergency services, which can take extra time for proper communication in an emergency and result in casualties.

Since VoIP technology requires high-speed internet to maintain voice quality, call quality tends to degrade with slow connections.

Not all VoIP service providers offer directory assistance or white page listings.

Since VoIP works over the Internet, there are cyber threats and security risks.


VoIP (stands for Voice over Internet Protocol) is a technology primarily designed to provide phone services over the Internet. There are many VoIP service providers and the features may differ from one to the other. However, the fundamental workings are the same for everyone. Instead of typical analog telephone lines, VoIP allows calls to be made over Internet Protocol networks.

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