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Fifth generation of computer: Use of AI and ULSI

The fifth generation of computers is by far the most successful generation of computers. In this generation, there have been significant changes in computer technology that make computers extraordinary. Although the fifth generation is in progress, computers have received several major benefits compared to their predecessors.

Fifth Generation of Computer

This article discusses about the fifth generation of computers, its history, examples, features, advantages, and disadvantages, etc. Let's understand this:

What You Will Learn


What is the fifth generation of Computer?

Instead of VLSI technology used in fourth-generation computers, fifth-generation computers received a major upgrade and VLSI technology was replaced with ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology. This revolutionized the development of microprocessors. This helped manufacturers assemble around ten million electronic components on a microprocessor chip.

In addition to ULSI technology, fifth-generation computers were also based on AI (artificial intelligence), which is still in the development stage, and parallel processing hardware. Artificial intelligence is an emerging technology in computer science that primarily helps to make computers more realistic. This means that it enables computers to think like humans; however, there is still room for much improvement.

The period of the fifth generation of computers is considered from 1980 to the present day, which simply means that the fifth generation is the ongoing generation of computers. Nowadays computers are using ULSI circuits, AI software, and parallel processing hardware. The main objective of all these technologies is to introduce technology in computers that can respond to natural languages.

Fifth Generation of Computer - AI


Artificial intelligence is a very broad category in computer science that incorporates various other technologies. Some of the main elements in AI include the following:

Robotics
Neural networking
Natural language understanding and generation
Game playing
Development of advanced systems that can take decisions based on real-life situations

Fifth-generation computers are incorporated with logic programming and massively parallel computing. In terms of programming languages, all high-level languages are used in fifth generation computers. Some of the most common languages are C, C ++, Java, .Net, etc. In addition, multi-threaded and distributed operating systems are used in fifth generation computers, which help in easy multitasking. 

Examples of Fifth Generation Computers

One of the most popular examples of artificial intelligence in computer technology was 'Watson', introduced around 2011 by IBM. It was software running on a computer and was featured as a contestant on the TV show Jeopardy. It was able to answer various questions, yet was based entirely on unstructured data and lacked the ability to think like humans. It eventually led the development to create a new generation of technology.

Nowadays there are many applications based on AI and now it is being combined with computer internal processing and networking systems. For example, the voice recognition feature is a very small type of functionality that works on AI. Siri used in Apple's iPhone and Cortana on Windows computers are some of the software that work on speech recognition. Besides, Google also uses AI to process better search engine results and display ads based on users' interests.

Fifth Generation of the Computer - Laptop

There are many potential applications of artificial intelligence that are included in fifth-generation devices. Some common examples of fifth-generation computers are listed below:

Desktop
Laptop
NoteBook
ChromeBook
UltraBook
Tablet, etc.

Characteristics of Fifth Generation Computers

Some essential characteristics or features of the fifth generation computers are as follows:

Use of ULSI technology
Advancement in true AI-based technology
Improvements in Parallel Processing
Use of Natural language processing
Advanced superconductor techniques
Highly user-friendly interfaces including the multimedia support
Use of Optical fiber in manufacturing circuits
Advancement in storage capacity and speed with HDD and SSD
Advancement in  computer networks and the Internet

Advantages of Fifth Generation Computers

Some of the advantages of the fifth generation of computers are listed below:


Due to the use of AI in fifth generation computers, computers have been able to understand human language and can also recognize pictures of individuals and things.

Fifth-generation computers are very compact in size and can be easily carried from one place to another. Besides, they are also available in various sizes and features.

The speed of computer systems in the fifth generation is much better than the previous generation computers. Also, they are more reliable and accurate.

The user interface in fifth generation computers is very friendly, making them easy to operate.

There is no major heating issue in fifth generation computers.

Computers developed in the fifth generation are more energy-efficient than their predecessors.

Fifth-generation computers are available at a pocket-friendly price and hence they are in widespread use in almost every field.

Almost all high-level programming languages are supported in fifth-generation computers.

Disadvantages of Fifth Generation Computers

Some of the disadvantages of the fifth generation of computers are listed below:


A small amount of heat is generated when fifth generation computers are used extensively.

Due to widespread use of computers in the fifth generation, there is a lot of wastage of computers and their parts which negatively affects the environment.

Computers have replaced humans in various fields due to automation, accuracy, and reliability. This has increased unemployment.

Computers are affecting human health and dulling and ruining the creativity and thinking capacity of the human brain.

Computers can be a threat in many cases as various types of cybercrimes can be committed using computer systems.

Fifth-generation computers are making good use of networks and communications; however, some bad people use this technology to spread wrong and inappropriate information to people.

Summary

The fifth-generation period began in 1980 and is still in progress. Fifth-generation computers are based on a combination of technologies, such as ULSI circuits, AI software, and parallel processing hardware. Although there have been many major improvements in fifth generation computers, there is still much room for upgrades.

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10 Major Limitations of Computer System

The limitations of computers primarily define some tasks that computers cannot perform, or in which humans perform better than computers. The term 'limitations' here indicates the drawbacks of a computer system where a computer fails to deliver.


Nowadays, computers can be seen performing various tasks with ease in almost every field, from the easiest to the most difficult. People have become familiar with working on computers over time due to the user-friendly interface and making their lives easier using them. But most people do not know what are the limitations of computers. However, it is important to know how a human being can be better than a computer in terms of technology.

Limitations of the Computer

In this article, we have explained the most common limitations of computers and how humans are better at performing certain tasks. Before going to the limitations, let's take a quick overview of what a computer is:

Introduction to Computer

A computer refers to an advanced electronic device that accepts raw data (input) from users, performs arithmetic and logical operations (processing) at a fast speed, and gives the desired result (output) to users. 

In particular, a computer system performs the functions listed below:

It accepts raw data (inputs) from the user with the help of various input devices.
It performs the required arithmetic and logic operations on the given data.
It converts the processed data into a human-readable form and provides the desired results (outputs) with the help of the output device.



What are the Limitations of Computer?

There are some limitations of the computer systems depending on their ability, dependency, actions, and more. However, the main limitations of the computer include Lack of Common Sense, No IQ, No Feelings, No Thinking Capability, No Decision Making Ability, No Learning Power, User Dependent, No Implementation Power, Cannot Express Ideas, and For Knowledgeable Audience:


Limitations of Computer

Let us discuss each of the above-listed limitations of computers in detail:

Lack of Common-sense

There is no common sense in computers and this is one of the major limitations of computers. They cannot make sound and prudent decisions based on a simple perception of the situation or facts. 

There is no doubt that computers are fast, reliable, and efficient. But they lack any common sense because no full-proof algorithm is designed for computers that could help them program general logic. Computers' functions are entirely based on the stored programs or logics.

For example, read the following sentence: 

“Rahul is red and the flower he is holding is a good person.
Scroll ⇀

If we write this sentence in Word, the computer will not display any error. However, any person would say that this sentence is wrong. It is based on common sense only. The correct sentence should be as below:

“Rahul is a good person and the flower he is holding is red.
Scroll ⇀

No IQ

This is another main limitation of computers. Computers lack Intelligence Quotient (IQ); they typically have zero IQ. In simple words, computers cannot see or think of any specific action as per the corresponding situation. Everything, whatever a computer can do, is already programmed into a computer; No matter how easy or complex the task is.


Computers have become smarter over time as they have given more instructions programmatically. If we try to do a particular task that is not programmed in the computer, then the computer will not do that task. 

No Feelings

The computer is still a machine and therefore has no feelings. Unlike humans, computers do not feel anything. They lack emotion. Even though there are many great inventions in computers, the human heart is still not developed for computers.

Any person would feel tired after working for few hours continuously. On the other hand, computers do not get tired. They can work continuously for hours with the same accuracy and speed. 

No Thinking Capability

Computers cannot think of themselves, which restricts them to do any task on their own. They are machines in which instructions are stored or programmed to perform specific tasks. Computers do not work by thinking themselves, they are given instructions. Otherwise, they are just boxes.

Humans have developed some algorithms to make computers work like humans, such as voice input/output support in Siri or Google speech search. But this concept still relies on stored instructions and is commonly called Artificial Intelligence.

No Decision-Making Ability

Computers are incapable of making decisions because they do not contain the necessary elements. Decision-making is a complex process that usually requires elements such as information, intelligence, knowledge, wisdom, and judgment capability. The computers lack these elements, so they are unable to make decisions. They can only work according to the instructions given by the users.

Computers can be programmed to make decisions about certain situations, which are purely process-oriented. On the other hand, human has great power to make decisions accordingly. Besides, computers are dead machines when there is no power supply. 


No Learning Power

Computers do not have the power to learn, and therefore, they cannot learn things on their own. They have no ability to do any work based on the fact that they have done similar work before. Users have to give data or input each time to get the desired result. Likewise, they must be already programmed to perform certain tasks.

User Dependent

Computers have become so smart, yet they are dependent on the user to take input. If no data is given to the computer, it cannot process the task or provide results. Some modern computers can handle certain automated and repetitive tasks on their own; however, the user still needs to monitor the working process and configure the automation process by giving the correct data.

No Implementation Power

Although computers can store large amounts of data and perform complex operations, they do not have implementation power. This means that computers cannot implement anything on their own. Instead, only humans can set rules and policies for computers and implement them accordingly. 

Suppose we type an incorrect spelling while writing a sentence in MS Word. This will underline the specific spelling in red (only if the spelling and grammar check feature is turned on), which means that the spelling is incorrect. Alternatively, it displays some similar suggestions of spelling that can be used in place of the wrong one. However, only we can select the right spelling from the given suggestions, and implement it in our sentence.

Computers cannot express Ideas

This is one of the biggest limitations of computers where humans can perform far better than computers. For any research, new ideas can play an important role in improvements and innovations. 


Since computers work on programmed instructions and given data, they have no ideas of their own. Therefore, computers cannot express ideas.

Made for Knowledgeable Audience

When it comes to operating a computer, a knowledgeable audience is required. Although it is so easy to run a computer for basic tasks, some basic learning is necessary. Despite this, an IT specialist or programmer may be required to work on some complex tasks. 

Conclusion

This article discusses the 10 essential limitations of computers in which humans perform better than them. Although computers have some limitations or drawbacks, we cannot ignore their importance. Nowadays computers have powerful features and are used in almost every field, allowing us to ignore their limitations. Computers are a necessity in this modern era.


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JAVA Full Form: What is the full form of JAVA?

JAVA is a very common term in computers and programming. Most people get confused about the full form of the word because there are websites explaining the various meanings of the word. This mainly leads people to more confusion about the actual explanation of the JAVA full form.


In this article, we have discussed and clarified all the confusion about the full form of JAVA. The article also discusses other details such as what is JAVA, brief history, applications, and features. 

What You Will Learn


What is the full form of JAVA?

Before we discuss the full form of JAVA, we should know that the term Java is not really an abbreviated term, and therefore, it does not have a definite full form. Besides, it is the name of a computer-based programming language that is mainly used to develop computer-based applications. JAVA was decided on the basis of the name Java Coffee which the developers were drinking while thinking of a new name for this particular programming language. 

Note: Java coffee is usually a coffee prepared using coffee beans from the island of Java which is located between Sumatra and Bali in Indonesia. Some people also call coffee beans as java beans. Furthermore, ‘Javanese’ is the Indonesian language that people use to interact with each other, which is completely different from the JAVA programming language.

Apart from this, programmers and developers have coined their imaginary full forms of the term JAVA. The most popular and commonly used full form of JAVA is "Just Another Virtual Accelerator". Even though the word JAVA has no special meaning or full form, this full form is used jokingly by people.

JAVA Full Form

The full form of JAVA can be explained as:

J Just
A Another
V Virtual
A Accelerator

Let’s talk about what JAVA is:

What is JAVA?

JAVA is a general-purpose, object-oriented, class-based computer programming language designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. This typically allows programmers and developers to Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA) mechanism. According to this, a JAVA code that has been compiled can run on other JAVA-supported platforms without recompilation. JAVA applications are usually compiled for byte code that is free to run on any JVM (stands for 'Java virtual machine') regardless of the underlying computer architecture.

The syntax of JAVA is relatively similar to C and C ++ and was designed to overcome their drawbacks. JAVA has low-level features and can help to create a single application to run on various platforms, such as Windows, UNIX, etc. Additionally, JAVA allows programmers to develop applications that can also run on an Internet browser.  


Brief History of JAVA

JAVA programming language was introduced by Sun Microsystems (which has now been acquired by Oracle), an initiative started by James Gosling. He started the project in mid-1991 for his set-top box-related project. At the initial state, the language was named 'Oak' which was taken from an oak tree that was situated outside his office. But this name was already a trademark of another organization named Oak Technologies. Later, the name was changed to ‘Green’ and many other names. 

Because the name did not seem appropriate and caused confusion in people, the name went through about 15 titles, ultimately ending with JAVA, DNA, and SILK. Finally, JAVA was finalized, derived from Java Coffee. It was released in 1995 as the first public implementation and core component of Sun Microsystem's JAVA platform.

Applications of JAVA

JAVA programming language is mainly used for developing applications for different platforms. Some of the most common applications that we can create using JAVA are listed below:

Mobile App Development
Web-based Applications
Desktop GUI Applications
Distributed Applications
Gaming Applications
Cloud-Based Applications
Big Data Technologies
IoT Applications
Business Applications
Enterprise Applications
Scientific Applications


Features of JAVA

The following are some essential features of JAVA:

JAVA is scalable. This means that we can upgrade system resources to increase the performance to handle extreme workloads.

JAVA is a cross-platform language, which means that the programs developed through JAVA can run on almost every platform. However, there must be a JVM (Java Virtual Machine) support in the corresponding platform.

JAVA uses an efficient mechanism for the Memory-management. We are not required to allocate or release the memory ourselves; JAVA automatically manages the memory as per the requirements.

JAVA is a multi-threaded language. This allows JAVA to execute two or more threads simultaneously using the maximum power of system resources. 

Summary

JAVA is the name of a programming language. It is not an abbreviation and has no definite full form. However, people have created a fictionalized full form of JAVA, which is the 'Just Another Virtual Accelerator'.




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What is Cybercrime: Introduction to Cyber Crime

Internet usage has increased drastically in the last few years, and therefore Internet criminal activities are developing. Most people think that cybercrime is just a criminal activity in which hackers steal the user's financial information. But that is not the only thing. Cybercrime is constantly evolving with new threats coming up every year.
What is Cybercrime

In this article, we will understand what is cybercrime, the definition of cybercrime, the impact of cybercrime, how it works, etc. Let's discuss this:

What You Will Learn


Introduction to Cybercrime

Cybercrime is commonly called a computer-oriented criminal activity that either uses or targets a network, computer system, or network device. Most cybercriminals commit cybercrimes to make money by targeting individuals. However, some professional cybercriminals can threaten an organization by damaging or disabling the entire network. 

Apart from this, the cybercriminal can also use computers or networks to transfer viruses, malware, pornographic content, illegal information, etc. These activities are usually done to damage computers and their data, for reasons other than just a profit. 

Usually, a primary motive of cybercriminals is to generate profit for them. To do this, cybercriminals may commit a variety of profit-driven criminal activities, such as stealing and reselling identities, getting access to financial accounts, misusing credit card to get money or goods, performing email frauds, trafficking in pornography or intellectual property, accessing government data for theft and resale, etc. To be specific, cybercrime can range from security breaches to identity theft.


Cybercrime Definition

Cybercrime is a type of crime that involves a computer and a network to carry out illegal activities through digital means. This can be done by individuals or small groups of people with little technical knowledge, or by highly organized global criminal groups with relatively skilled developers and professionals.

Skilled cybercriminals use advanced tools and techniques to hide their identity and location. Additionally, some cybercriminal conducts cybercrime from countries where there are weak or no cybercrime laws. This helps in reducing the chances of detection and prosecution of cybercriminals.

Defining Cybercrime

The Department of Justice (DOJ) in the U.S. has divided cybercrime into the following three categories:

Crimes in which the computer acts as a weapon, i.e., performing DoS (denial-of-service) attack, etc.
Crimes in which computer is an accessory to a crime, i.e., storing illegally obtained data into the computer.
Crimes in which the computing device is the target, i.e., to get access to a computer or network.

These are the crimes that distinguish cybercrimes from traditional crimes. It only states that cybercrime is an attack on information about individuals, enterprises, or governments. These attacks occur on virtual bodies of individuals or enterprises (it is nothing but a set of informational attributes on the Internet).

In addition, the US has signed the European Convention of Cybercrime. Accordingly, anything including the following is considered cybercrime:

Selling illegal items online.
Illegal gambling.
Infringing copyright.
Illegally intercepting or stealing data.
Soliciting, producing, or processing child pornography.
Interfering with systems in a way that compromises a network.

Impact of Cybercrime

It is difficult to accurately assess the actual impact of cybercrime. The impact of cybercrime can be devastating due to the high risk of data loss and financial impact. The effects of cybercrime can be classified into the following three categories:


For Individuals

The impact of cybercrime can be mostly seen on individuals. There can be issues like data breaches, identity theft, or trafficking to malicious sites, etc. with the devices. Due to this, one may see suspicious charges on credit cards and loose access to their financial accounts. Additionally, cybercriminals may misuse data stored on devices for harassment and blackmailing.

For Businesses

Businesses may suffer from sensitive data loss, financial loss, or brand damage, etc. It can directly affect the value of a company, the share price, and can also cause loss of reputation, customers, etc.

If companies fail to protect customer data, they will also have to pay fines and penalties. In addition, a cybercriminal may secretly sell the company's sensitive data to other companies.

For Government

This is a very important offense when accessing government data for misuse. Cybercriminals use advanced tools and technologies to gain access to the government's highly sensitive data. The main purpose of targeting government data is to damage data or sell national security and defense data.

Cybercrime Example

The most common examples of Cybercrime include the followings:

Cybercrime Examples - What is Cybercrime

DDoS Attack

One of the most commonly seen examples of cybercrime is a distributed DoS attack. These attacks are mainly performed to shut down systems or networks.

Malware

Malware is used to infect systems or networks and harm users by damaging their software, data, or entire systems. Malware is often used to encrypt or shut down the targeted devices until a ransom is paid.

Phishing

Cybercriminals usually send fraudulent emails or messages to victims and redirect them to fake sites. The site can be an exact copy of any popular site and looks trustworthy. Because of this, users enter their personal information such as usernames, passwords, bank details, or other important data, without knowing that these details are directly reaching cybercriminals.

Credential Attack

A credential attack is the most common example of cybercrime, where a cybercriminal aims to steal information about a user's financial accounts. In most cases, this type of attack is carried out using brute-force by installing the Keylogger software, which secretly logs everything that the user enters via the keyboard.

Website Hijacking

Another common example of cybercrime is website hacking where cybercriminals try to gain access to the website and change or remove content without authorization. In order to perform this type of attack, cybercriminal usually inserts malicious code into a website using the SQL (Structured Query Language) injection method. 

How to know if I’m targeted by cybercrime?

It is not easy to find out if a person is targeted by cybercriminals or has been a victim of cybercrime. However, the following signs may be an indication that something is suspicious and may be the cause of cybercrime:


Malware infection: Computer or other devices may start running slowly even when there is no heavy applications are running. Additionally, several error messages may occur on the screen.

Keylogger: There can be various suspicious icons on your machine. Also, there can be duplicate text issue with whatever you type or paste using the machine.

Botnet: The computer may take a long time to shut down or not shut down properly. In addition, there can be several other activities such as programs running slowly, unable to download windows and antivirus updates, fan running so fast even in the ideal state, etc. It is very difficult to detect if your machine is infected with a botnet.

Phishing or pharming attack: You may see an unknown or suspicious deduction on your credit card or other compromised accounts.

Cryptojacking: You will notice a decrease in performance even performing very basic tasks on the computer. Also, there can be a hike in electric bills due to heavy resource consumption.

Conclusion

If sudden unexpected activities are happening on your computer, tablet, mobile, or any other network device then there may be a reason for cybercriminals activities. Therefore, if your device behaves strangely and sounds suspicious, then advice should be taken from cyber experts. If you have been targeted by cybercrime, it is better to disconnect the device from the network and take some time to report cybercrime using another secure device.


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