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Difference between DBMS and RDBMS: DBMS vs RDBMS

DBMS and RDBMS are both sets of computer programs that help store data in a structured format in a database. This ultimately makes it easier to store, manage and retrieve data efficiently. The database has so far proved to be an essential and integral part of the data collection system. Although they (DBMS and RDBMS) seem quite similar, there are significant differences between DBMS and RDBMS.

Difference between DBMS and RDBMS

Before discussing the difference between DBMS and RDBMS, let's take a quick overview of both:

What is DBMS?

A DBMS (Database Management System) is a software technology solution that primarily helps to systematically store and manage information or data in a database. It also helps to create, define, modify and maintain databases, and provide controlled access to data. DBMS was first introduced in 1960 by Charles W. Bachman.

DBMS can also be used to manipulate data using features such as insertion, deletion, and updating. It acts as an interface between the database and the end-user and allows manipulating data in the database at the same time. DBMS technology is enabling businesses and individuals to work efficiently with databases and obtain the desired data effectively.

Advantages of DBMS

The following are some advantages of the DBMS:

DBMS supports single-user mode only for faster performance.
DBMS treats data as files internally.
DBMS can work even with low software and hardware support.
It is best suited for small businesses or individuals.

What is RDBMS?

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) is not usually the opposite of DBMS. Instead, it is an extended version of the DBMS. This means that RDBMS is a more sophisticated version of DBMS and provides more functionality. Therefore, RDBMS allows businesses to use data more efficiently than DBMS. It was first introduced in 1970.


RDBMS is a software package with computer programs to help users create, update, and manage a relational database, which is distinguished by the structured data in logically independent table forms. It primarily sorts data into rows and columns, called tuples and tables. RDBMS is currently a powerful data management system that is in use worldwide.

Advantages of RDBMS

The following are some advantages of the RDBMS:

RDBMS provides support for multiple users.
RDBMS treats data as tables internally.
RDBMS requires high software and hardware to add optimum performance with more features.
It is best suited for large businesses and organizations.

Note: A database refers to an organized collection of data or structured information, which is stored electronically or digitally. Typically, databases use a structured query language (short for SQL) to write and query data.  

Difference between DBMS and RDBMS - DBMS Vs RDBMS


DBMS Vs RDBMS: Key Differences

Let’s discuss some major differences between DBMS and RDBMS:

DBMS stores data as files, whereas RDBMS stores the data in tables (tabular form).

The modification of data is a bit complex in RDBMS, whereas it is relatively easy in DBMS.

DBMS does not have any mechanism for sorting data. However, in RDBMS, there is a proper set of defined mechanisms for sorting the data.

DBMS allows one user to work on at a time, whereas multiple users can work in RDBMS at the same time.

DBMS is subject to deal with small amounts of data. Besides, RDBMS can handle unlimited data.

When it comes to fetching data for complex data, DBMS is slow. However, it is relatively fast in RDBMS. Since RDBMS can efficiently handle complex and large amounts of data, it is useful for a wider range of applications than DBMS.

The data redundancy is common in DBMS, which means the data can repeat in DBMS. Besides in RDBMS, there is no data redundancy because of keys and indexes.

DBMS is meant to manage databases in system hard-disks and networks. In contrast, RDBMS is meant to manage relationships between the tables and the corresponding data values in each table.


Difference Between DBMS and RDBMS

Let’s discuss the difference between DBMS and RDBMS with the help of the following comparison chart (in a tabular form):

DBMS RDBMS
It stands for ‘Database Management System’. It stands for ‘Relational Database Management System’.
DBMS technology stores the data in the form of files. RDBMS stores the data in the form of tables.
No relationship is formed between the data in DBMS. In RDBMS, the data is stored in multiple tables and therefore can relate to each other with foreign keys.
The data in DBMS is typically stored in navigational or hierarchical forms. In RDBMS, data is stored in a tabular form where the headers are column names, and the rows have corresponding data values. Any data can be easily accessed through the column name and row index.
DBMS allows managing the databases on the computer hard disks and computer networks. RDBMS allows maintaining the relationships among the tables in databases.
Data elements through DBMS can only be accessed individually. In RDBMS, multiple data elements can be accessed at the same time.
DBMS provides support only for a single user at a time. RDBMS provides support for multiple users at a time.
Data in regular databases may not be stored following the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) model, which typically inconsistencies in databases. Although relational databases are harder to create, they are consistent, well-structured, and follow the ACID model.
In DBMS, Normalization is absent. In RDBMS, Normalization is present so that there is a proper structure of rows and columns in tables.
There is no support for the distributed databases in DBMS. RDBMS provides support for the distributed databases.
There is no support for client-server architecture in DBMS. RDBMS provides support for the client-server architecture.
DBMS is designed to handle small amounts of data. RDBMS is designed to deal with a vast amount of data.
Data fetching for the complex and large amount of data is relatively slower in DBMS. Data fetching is quick in RDBMS due to the relational approach.
In DBMS, there is no support for the integrity constraints. In RDBMS, there is support for integrity constraints at the schema level.
Data Redundancy is quite common in DBMS. RDBMS utilizes keys and indexes in tables, which eliminates the Data Redundancy in this model.
Here, the data is subject to low-security levels when it comes to data manipulation. The data in RDBMS has multiple security levels during data manipulation. Also, log files are created at the OS level, command level, and object level as well.
DBMS can efficiently work with low software and hardware requirements. RDBMS requires higher software and hardware.
The examples of DBMS include XML, MS Access, file systems, Dbase, etc. The examples of RDBMS include MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle, PostgreSQL, etc.


Conclusion

The comparison between DBMS and RDBMS simply makes it clear that the relational database management system is an improved version of DBMS and is more powerful. Although, both DBMS and RDBMS are used to store and manage data in databases, there are several notable differences between them. Moreover, RDBMS is the most widely used database management system in the present time.


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PUBG Full Form: What is PUBG?

PUBG is a highly popular game and has been downloaded over 100 million times on Android devices from the Google Play Store. However, the game is available for other platforms as well. The question about the full form of PUBG gained popularity when it was asked in a famous Indian TV show KBC (Kaun Banega Crorepati).

PUBG Full Form

This article discusses about the PUBG full form, and some other related topics, such as what PUBG is, why it is so popular, its features, and many other popular abbreviations used in it.

What is the full form of PUBG?

PUBG is a short form of ‘PlayerUnknown’s Battlegrounds’. It is one of the most popular online multiplayer Battle Royal games. The game is developed and released by PUBG Corporation, which is particularly a subsidiary of Bluehole, a South Korean video game company. 

PUBG's main genre, Battle Royale, was inspired by a Japanese film called 'Battle Royal'. According to this film, many students are taken to an island, and in order to survive, they have to battle each other and try to become the only last person alive. The PUBG game is based on almost the same story.

In PUBG, there are several modes where the number of players is dropped via airplane in a limited area map. Players are required to decide whether they want to play singles, doubles, or as a team of four. Once players land, they can find a variety of weapons that they can use to defeat others. There are many in-game elements, such as medicine, health kits, pain-killers, vehicles, various costumes, armor, etc. All these elements help to make the game experience more realistic. One or a team of several players (duo or team of four) who survive to the last is declared the winner.


Brief History of PUBG

The PUBG game was initially released for Microsoft Windows as the beta program in March 2017. Later, it was publicly released via Steam (the online gaming platform) in December 2017. Soon it was made available for Xbox One by Microsoft Studios. The game received a good response and so it was developed for other platforms as well. In 2018, it became available for iOS and Android platforms.

Features of PUBG

Some of the popular features of the PUBG game are listed below:

Many maps and climate
A wide variety of weapons, and vehicles
Multiple characters including men and women
Customization of characters and weapons using different colors and skins
Availability of in-game military assets such as helmets, backpacks, vests, etc.
Availability of voice and text-based communication between teammates as well as opponents.
Ability to re-join accidentally disconnected matches due to server issues
Ability to jump from an aircraft and control parachutes
Ability to help teammates in difficulties using the revive option
Game replays option to see how the in-game character died

Why is PUBG so popular?

No game has ever been as popular as PUBG. The following are some of the most effective reasons that have made this game so popular:


Extensive multiplayer support
A realistic game-play experience
Voice chat availability during gameplay
Regular updates and new features
Availability for various platforms and devices, even for the lower ends devices with the PUBG Lite version
National and International PUBG tournaments

Is PUBG a harmful game?

PUBG is an online game like other games. However, this game is very addictive. It is not technically harmful if played for a limited time as part of the entertainment. But when no time limit is set for playing the game, any online game can be harmful to health. 

Besides, there were some issues where parents did not allow their children to play PUBG and in return, they made some wrong decisions, some of which even committed suicide. Therefore, some restrictions were added to a game such that if someone plays a game for a longer duration (usually 4 to 6 hours depending on the player's age), the game will automatically lock. After that, the player has to wait for some time to play it again. PUBG game has also been banned in some countries for some security reasons and public demand.

Other Popular Abbreviations in PUBG

PUBG is a popular game, in which many new abbreviations are developed every day. Using these abbreviations, gamers make their communication short and fast, allowing them to somehow beat opponents with strategic gameplay. Some common acronyms used in PUBG are tabulated below:


Abbreviation Full Form
OP Overpowered
FTW For the Win
BP Battle Points
RP Royale Pass
HP Health Points
WP Well Played
UC Unknown Cash
FPP First-Person Perspective
TPP Third Person Perspective
FPS Frames Per Second
AG Ace Gold
GG Good Game
IGN In-Game Name
BRB Be Right Back
LOL Laughing Out Loud

Some of these abbreviations are used in other games as well.

Summary

PUBG (stands for PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds) has made online and mobile gaming very popular. With online gaming, players also get connect with others and enjoy multiplayer gaming simultaneously from different locations. 




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The Fifth Generation of Computer: AI

The fifth generation of computers is by far the most successful generation of computers. In this generation, there have been significant changes in computer technology that make computers extraordinary. Although the fifth generation is in progress, computers have received several major benefits compared to their predecessors.

Fifth Generation of Computer

This article discusses about the fifth generation of computers, its history, examples, features, advantages, and disadvantages, etc. Let's understand this:

What You Will Learn


What is the fifth generation of Computer?

Instead of VLSI technology used in fourth-generation computers, fifth-generation computers received a major upgrade and VLSI technology was replaced with ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology. This revolutionized the development of microprocessors. This helped manufacturers assemble around ten million electronic components on a microprocessor chip.

In addition to ULSI technology, fifth-generation computers were also based on AI (artificial intelligence), which is still in the development stage, and parallel processing hardware. Artificial intelligence is an emerging technology in computer science that primarily helps to make computers more realistic. This means that it enables computers to think like humans; however, there is still room for much improvement.

The period of the fifth generation of computers is considered from 1980 to the present day, which simply means that the fifth generation is the ongoing generation of computers. Nowadays computers are using ULSI circuits, AI software, and parallel processing hardware. The main objective of all these technologies is to introduce technology in computers that can respond to natural languages.

Fifth Generation of Computer - AI


Artificial intelligence is a very broad category in computer science that incorporates various other technologies. Some of the main elements in AI include the following:

Robotics
Neural networking
Natural language understanding and generation
Game playing
Development of advanced systems that can take decisions based on real-life situations

Fifth-generation computers are incorporated with logic programming and massively parallel computing. In terms of programming languages, all high-level languages are used in fifth generation computers. Some of the most common languages are C, C ++, Java, .Net, etc. In addition, multi-threaded and distributed operating systems are used in fifth generation computers, which help in easy multitasking. 

Examples of Fifth Generation Computers

One of the most popular examples of artificial intelligence in computer technology was 'Watson', introduced around 2011 by IBM. It was software running on a computer and was featured as a contestant on the TV show Jeopardy. It was able to answer various questions, yet was based entirely on unstructured data and lacked the ability to think like humans. It eventually led the development to create a new generation of technology.

Nowadays there are many applications based on AI and now it is being combined with computer internal processing and networking systems. For example, the voice recognition feature is a very small type of functionality that works on AI. Siri used in Apple's iPhone and Cortana on Windows computers are some of the software that work on speech recognition. Besides, Google also uses AI to process better search engine results and display ads based on users' interests.

Fifth Generation Computer - Desktop

There are many potential applications of artificial intelligence that are included in fifth-generation devices. Some common examples of fifth-generation computers are listed below:

Desktop
Laptop
NoteBook
ChromeBook
UltraBook
Tablet, etc.

Characteristics of Fifth Generation Computers

Some essential characteristics or features of the fifth generation computers are as follows:

Use of ULSI technology
Advancement in true AI-based technology
Improvements in Parallel Processing
Use of Natural language processing
Advanced superconductor techniques
Highly user-friendly interfaces including the multimedia support
Use of Optical fiber in manufacturing circuits
Advancement in storage capacity and speed with HDD and SSD
Advancement in  computer networks and the Internet

Advantages of Fifth Generation Computers

Some of the advantages of the fifth generation of computers are listed below:


Due to the use of AI in fifth generation computers, computers have been able to understand human language and can also recognize pictures of individuals and things.

Fifth-generation computers are very compact in size and can be easily carried from one place to another. Besides, they are also available in various sizes and features.

The speed of computer systems in the fifth generation is much better than the previous generation computers. Also, they are more reliable and accurate.

The user interface in fifth generation computers is very friendly, making them easy to operate.

There is no major heating issue in fifth generation computers.

Computers developed in the fifth generation are more energy-efficient than their predecessors.

Fifth-generation computers are available at a pocket-friendly price and hence they are in widespread use in almost every field.

Almost all high-level programming languages are supported in fifth-generation computers.

Disadvantages of Fifth Generation Computers

Some of the disadvantages of the fifth generation of computers are listed below:


A small amount of heat is generated when fifth generation computers are used extensively.

Due to widespread use of computers in the fifth generation, there is a lot of wastage of computers and their parts which negatively affects the environment.

Computers have replaced humans in various fields due to automation, accuracy, and reliability. This has increased unemployment.

Computers are affecting human health and dulling and ruining the creativity and thinking capacity of the human brain.

Computers can be a threat in many cases as various types of cybercrimes can be committed using computer systems.

Fifth-generation computers are making good use of networks and communications; however, some bad people use this technology to spread wrong and inappropriate information to people.

Summary

The fifth-generation period began in 1980 and is still in progress. Fifth-generation computers are based on a combination of technologies, such as ULSI circuits, AI software, and parallel processing hardware. Although there have been many major improvements in fifth generation computers, there is still much room for upgrades.


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MOSFET Full Form: What is MOSFET in Electronics?

MOSFETs are widely used to design various types of circuits from a basic driver circuit to complex power rectifiers, inverters, etc. In general, MOSFETs are known as the power electronic switching components (power switches) and are very important devices among high power applications. But the first question that comes to mind is- what is the full form of MOSFET?

MOSFET Full Form

In this article, we have briefly covered the most important topics about MOSFET, such as the MOSFET full form, what is a MOSFET, its definition, construction, symbols, types, various applications, and more.

What is the full form of MOSFET?

The full form of MOSFET is ‘Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor’. Sometimes, it is also referred to as ‘Metal-Oxide Silicon Field-Effect Transistor’. MOSFET is usually defined as a transistor used primarily to switch electronic signals. They are widely used in the field of power electronics and are best known for handling significant power levels.

The full form of MOSFET can be explained as:

M Metal
O Oxide
S Semiconductor
F Field
E Effect
T Transistor

Now, let us understand what a MOSFET is:

What is MOSFET?

MOSFET is defined as a particular type of field-effect transistor primarily used to switch or amplify electronic signals. The MOSFET was mainly designed to eliminate the disadvantages of the FETs, including moderate input impedance, high drain resistance, and slower operation. Practically speaking, MOSFETs are the advanced version of FETs.


In particular, the MOSFET is a device consisting of four terminals, such as a source, drain, gate, and body terminal. However, the body is usually attached to the source terminal, which makes MOSFET a three-terminal device similar to other field-effect transistors. Since these two terminals are interconnected, its electrical diagrams have three visible terminals.  

MOSFETs operate by varying the width of a channel through which carriers, such as holes or electrons, flow. A channel is formed by the application of a voltage to the gate. The wider the channel or the greater the gate voltage, the better the device conducts. Charge carriers enter the channel at the source terminal and exit through the drain terminal.

Construction of a MOSFET

In terms of the construction, MOSFET has a bit similar structure as FET (Field-Effect Transistor). However, MOSFET has an additional oxide layer attached to the substrate, which is further connected with the gate terminal. The oxide layer present in MOSFET functions as an insulator (silicon dioxide insulates from the substrate), and therefore, MOSFET is also referred to as IGFET (Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor).

In MOSFET, a lightly doped substrate is diffused with a heavily doped region. Based on the type of substrate used while constructing the MOSFET, they called divided as the N-type and P-type MOSFETs. 

The following image displays the structural view of the MOSFET:

Construction of a MOSFET

The voltage applied to the gate is responsible for controlling the operation of the MOSFET. In particular, both positive and negative voltages can be applied because the gate is completely insulated from the channel. When there is a positive gate bias voltage, the MOSFET acts as an enhancement mode. Furthermore, with negative gate bias voltage, it acts as the depletion mode.

Classification of MOSFET

Based on the functioning and operations types, MOSFET is mainly classified into the two types, such as the Depletion mode MOSFET (D-MOSFET) and Enhancement mode MOSFET (E-MOSFET)
Classification of MOSFET

Let us briefly go through each type:

Depletion Type MOSFET

In the depletion type MOSFETs, the channel is already established and it exhibits maximum conductivity even if there is zero voltage or no voltage across the gate terminal. Besides, when the voltage, either positive or negative, is applied across the gate terminal, the channel conductivity decreases.

Depletion MOSFETs are further sub-divided into the following two types based on the material used for doped construction (n-type or p-type):

N-channel Depletion mode MOSFETs
P-channel Depletion mode MOSFETs

Enhancement Type MOSFET

The enhancement type MOSFET is just opposite to the depletion type MOSFET. In enhancement type MOSFETs, the device does not typically conduct in the absence of gate voltage across the terminal. Furthermore, when the gate voltage is applied, a channel is established. In this case, the device exhibits enhanced conductivity with the maximum voltage across the gate terminal. 

In enhancement type MOSFETs, the gate voltage is proportional to the current. As the gate voltage increases, the current increases continuously with it, and vice versa. It is also important to note here that the gate voltage must be positive and exceed the source voltage.

Like depletion MOSFETs, the Enhancement MOSFETs are also sub-divided into two different types based on the doped material. They are:

N-channel Depletion mode MOSFETs
P-channel Depletion mode MOSFETs


Symbols of MOSFET

As discussed above, there are four different types of MOSFET. Let us now discuss the symbols of each type of MOSFET:
 

N-channel MOSFETs

N-channel MOSFETs are abbreviated as NMOS. For N-channel MOSFETs, symbols in both modes, such as depletion and enhancement, are as follows:

Symbols of N type MOSFETs

P-channel MOSFETs

P-channel MOSFETs are abbreviated as PMOS. For P-channel MOSFETs, symbols in both modes, such as depletion and enhancement, are as follows:

Symbols of P type MOSFETs

Among these four types of MOSFETs, the N-channel Enhancement MOSFET is the widely used type of MOSFET. As per the construction of the MOSFET, the Gate (G), Source (S), and Drain (D) pins are physically attached in a Depletion mode. On the opposite side, the same pins are physically separated in the Enhancement mode. That is the reason why the symbols appear broken in an Enhancement mode for MOSFETs.

Applications of MOSFET

The following are the major applications of a MOSFET:

Amplifiers manufactured using MOSFET are widely used in radio frequency applications.
MOSFETs function similarly to the passive elements such as an inductor, resistor, and capacitor.
With the help of power MOSFETs, DC (direct current) motors can be easily regulated.
Because of high-switching speed, MOSFETs are considered the best choice for manufacturing chopper circuits.
MOSFETs are extensively used as switches for various devices such as LEDs, Arduino, AC loads, DC motors, microcontrollers, and more.


Advantages of MOSFET

The following are the advantages of a MOSFET:

MOSFETs help achieve greater efficiency, even when they operate at lower voltages.
MOSFETs can operate at relatively low power without drawing much current.
When there is no gate current, MOSFETs typically achieve high input impedance, resulting in high switching speeds.

Disadvantages of MOSFET

The following are the disadvantages of a MOSFET:

In the presence of overload voltages, MOSFETs usually become unstable.
Since MOSFETs have a thin oxide layer, they are vulnerable and may face permanent damage when evoked by electrostatic charges.

Summary

MOSFET (stands for Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor) is a special type of voltage-controlled field-effect transistor that mainly helps in amplifying and switching electronic signals. It usually functions in two ways, such as depletion mode and enhancement mode.




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