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URL Full Form: Meaning of URL in Computer

When it comes to the Internet and browsing, the term URL is quite common. When browsing through the web, people use the URL all the time but most people do not even notice it. Although the term URL is heavily used in the field of computers and the Internet, most people do not even know the full form of URL.

URL Full Form

In this article, we are discussing the basic concepts of URLs, such as what is a URL full form, what is a URL, what does it contain, its syntax, and more.

What is the full form of URL?

URL stands for “Uniform Resource Locator”. In context to HTTP and Hypertext, URL is known as one of the core concepts of the Web. It is nothing but a simple technique that is used to retrieve any published resource on the web. The full form of URL can be explained as:

U Uniform
R Resource
L Locator

Let’s talk about what URL is:

What is URL?

The URL is the address of the resource or link to the resource on the web. Each valid URL points to a specific address that connects to a unique resource on the Internet. This can include many types of resources, such as an HTML page, a CSS document, an image, etc. When a URL is used within a link with http or https, it is known as a web address.

In other words, the URL is the character string or specific address used to access particular data from any resource on the Internet. A URL is a type of uniform resource identifier (also called 'URI'). URL and its resources are managed by the owner of the webserver. The owner is responsible to carefully manage the resources and create and associate URLs accordingly. 

Note: URL was introduced in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee and the Internet Engineering Working Group.


What URL contains?

Each URL includes the following information:

The name of the network protocol
A colon followed by the double forward slashes, such as ://
A hostname (called domain name in general) or IP address
A single colon followed by a port number
The complete path of the resource (file)

Syntax of URL

The basic syntax of URL looks like this:

Protocol://hostname/Resource path or filename
Scroll ⇀

Where,

Protocol

A protocol is the starting part of any URL. It is defined as the basic set of rules that help electronic devices to communicate together. To be specific, it tells the web browser to form a connection over specific protocols (such as http:// or https://). 

Hostname

The hostname denotes the server name on the network.


Resource Path or Filename 

It denotes the path of the file (pathname or filename) on the server.

All these components jointly form the URL structure.

Example of URL

A simple example of a URL is displayed below:

https://www.tutorialsmate.com/2020/10/url-full-form.html
Scroll ⇀

In the above URL:

Protocol – https
Hostname or Domain name – www.tutorialsmate.com
Resource Path (or File/ Filename) – /2010/10/url-full-form.html
 
URL Full Form - URL Contents (www.tutorialsmate.com)

A URL is usually entered into the given address bar of the web browsers. In case we enter the wrong domain name or a server, the browser returns the error, such as 'error 404 page not found’, or ‘Server not found’. Since URL does not support spaces and already contains forward slashes, we are only allowed to use dashes and underscores to separate the words of the web file. 

URL Vs URI

The URL and URI are not the same. The URL is an abbreviation used for "Uniform Resource Locator", while URI is an abbreviation used for "Uniform Resource Identifier". URI is a generic term used for each identity and address, which displays objects on WWW. It is basically a sequence of characters that identifies a logical resource or the name and particular path of a resource file in a uniform format. 

Summary

URL (stands for 'Uniform Resource Locator') is one of the key concepts of the web that helps web browsers to retrieve published resources via the web, according to the user’s choice. It is nothing but an address of the particular resource on the Web. 




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Why is my computer so slow: Fix a Slow Computer

Why is my computer so slow

Think of a moment when you are working on a computer and suddenly it all gets stuck somewhere and you have to start it again, you could not save your work. This is one the most frustrating moment while working on a computer and you may probably feel like - why? Why is my computer so slow?

Here, we have discussed all the reasons that can slow down your computer system. I would suggest you proceed one by one. This will help you find out the real problem of messing with your system. Fix all the problems you find and keep your computer in motion with your ethics.

Let’s do it:


Reasons for a slow Computer System


Technically, an operating system decides or sequences tasks or processes on any computer system. It is also responsible for controlling drive space, controlling memory and processing power, etc. in all running programs. Although operating systems are developed in such a way that they can handle computer performance, there are some factors listed above that can reduce performance.


Usually, when we buy or setup a new system, it works very fast. But, as time passes, we begin to notice that the performance is decreasing dramatically. So, what has changed now? This question always bothers the mind and makes any simple task very specific or complex. Let's learn more about the reasons:

Too many startup programs

If your computer is taking longer booting time than before, there may be a lot of startup programs. As soon as you start your computer, these programs start automatically and keep running in the background reducing the overall performance of your computer system.

Typically, when you purchase or setup a computer system, there are only system apps and services with permission to run automatically at startup. But, many programs you install come with the option to run automatically on startup. Over time, you have a lot of programs at startup, which reduces overall performance and booting time.


However, some programs such as antivirus and firewall, etc. are required to run at startup.

Running out of disk space (SSD or HDD)

When the disk (hard disk drive or solid-state drive) memory is getting full, the system slows down. This is because a computer system needs a significant amount of free space to use swap files or virtual memory, prevent fragmentation, create temporary files, and many other things.

To ensure that your computer is not slow due to full drive storage, make sure that you do not fill it more than 95%.

Also Read: Difference between SSD and HDD

Animations and special visual effects

Windows and many other operating systems come with special visual effects such as animations and shadows, which slow down processing. However, you can use accordingly whether you like smooth performance or best appearance.

Unwanted temporary files

A computer can create many temporary files when you run a program. It also includes files that programs and operating systems use to store temporary data, such as programs that download files when installing software updates. These temporary files can be removed from the computer to free up space and improve performance.

Running multiple programs simultaneously

One of the biggest advantages of a computer is multitasking, which means that you can do multiple tasks at once. But, at some point, it can slow down your system performance. Depending on the amount of RAM you have, you can run many programs as long as there is free RAM. As soon as the RAM is full, your system will slow down considerably.

Why is my computer so slow - Running multiple program simultaneously

Apart from this, running multiple programs at the same time can also increase your CPU load. Because the operating system works harder and uses more CPU for memory management which results in a reduction in processing power.

Unnecessary background processes

This is one of the biggest factors slowing down your computer performance. As we discussed above, your system may contain unnecessary startup programs and activities that can slow down the overall speed of the system. 

Besides, some programs are also developed in such a way that they continue to run in the background even after being closed. They continue to use the RAM and processing power of computer systems unnecessarily.

Browser has too many add-ons/ plugins

If you install too many add-ons with your browser, you can slow down the overall browsing experience. Because the more add-ons you install, the more amount of RAM will be used. Some extensions can usefully enhance your web experience, but keeping too many of them will be a culprit in slowing down your system performance by consuming processing power and memory.

Also, many programs you install secretly install unwanted extensions. This may include search engines, ad-blockers, popup blockers, etc.

Using several tabs on browser

Sometimes, this can also be a reason why your computer is so slow. When you open multiple tabs in a browser, it is saved in RAM. If you do not have a sufficient amount of free RAM, you run out of room to process anything, resulting in a decrease in overall system performance.
Why is my computer so slow - Using several tabs on a browser

Malware or Virus Attacks

Computer viruses can be another reason that can slow down your PC. Viruses, malware, and spyware can mess everything up, from deleting your files to opening your browser, taking you to phishing sites, hijacking your system, etc.

If your system is affected, you may notice some unusual activities such as auto advertisements, popups, auto launches of programs, etc. Such unwanted activities can lead to poor system performance as well as misuse of your data.

Also Read: Types of Computer Viruses

An overzealous antivirus

Your antivirus can run in the background and take a large amount of RAM and CPU. It is not recommended to shut down or stop running in the background as it is an important program to protect your privacy and data. However, the scheduling system scans overnight or when your computer is ideal may be a good option.

Computer system overheated

Make sure that your computer and processor do not heat too much. Because, when you use your system longer with heavy usage, it can overheat. When the heat level reaches its maximum level, the computer system slows down. This tends to reduce processor speed to help compensate for heat-related issues automatically. Sometimes, your system can reboot automatically due to overheating.

Besides, dust, dirt, or hair blockage can prevent air vents, resulting in an increase in system temperature. Make sure that you keep your system and its surroundings clean.
Why is my computer so slow - Computer system overheated

Running in power saver mode

Most laptops include the option to adjust power settings to control system performance and battery usage. It usually includes three features, such as "Balanced, Power Saver and High Performance". If your system is running in power saver mode, you may encounter problems with performance because your operating system reduces the speed of system components to provide increased battery backup rather than focusing on performance.

To maximize system performance, it is recommended to use a "high performance" mode with charging.

Computer needs to be rebooted

Sometimes, your computer system may simply ask to restart. This usually happens when the system has installed Windows Update or you have uninstalled any software and the system needs a restart to remove residual files or unnecessary registry files. If you use without restarting the system, you may notice a performance decrease.

In addition, there may be many system activities or background processes that are hung up for a myriad of reasons. Instead of searching and shutting down all processes one by one, it is better to restart the system to easily fix all of them. Rebooting a system fixes most problems.

Running out of RAM (Random Access Memory)

In most cases, your system slows down due to low RAM. If your system has less RAM, it is likely to work slowly as programs and system activities will not get the required amount of RAM. When RAM runs out, the system becomes too slow. In this situation, the computer system starts using disk space as virtual memory (swap memory) to balance performance.

Note: However, you can use disk space as virtual memory but upgrading RAM would be a better option as disk drives (HDD or SSD) are not as fast as RAM.

Also Read: Types of Computer Memory

Disk drive is failing

Disk drives have a lifetime. Slow working of a disk drive is a common problem at the end of its lifetime. The reason for this in most hard drives is because there are moving components inside the HDDs. If you leave them by mistake or they fall within the range of strong magnetic fields, it can lead to hard disk failure. 


Besides, solid-state drives do not face such issues as there are no moving parts inside them. However, it is stated that they have a lower number of R/W, resulting in shorter lifetimes than HDDs.

Read Detailed Guide: SSD vs HDD: Which is better?
Why is my computer so slow - Hard drive is failing


Old or fragmented hard drive

Outdated or fragmented hard drives are also important factors that can significantly reduce the overall performance of your computer system. This is actually a disk condition in which files are stored in pieces scattered around the disk. In this case, the data is accessed from different parts of the disk (memory location) to be combined as a single file. At some point, it reduces the speed of the system as the overall time increases while reading the data.

Processor is outdated

Most programs receive frequent updates with more features included with them. The minimum requirements also change with each major update. But, you are trying to use programs with your old CPU that are no longer suitable to achieve smooth performance. It can perform at a slower rate with the same programs that worked properly before the update. In such situations, it is recommended to overclock or upgrade the processor.

How to fix a slow computer?

Now, you should already know the reason why your computer is so slow. The next thing you need to do is to fix those specific problems. 

For example:


If your computer has too many startup programs, you can disable them accordingly.
If your computer is running out of disk space, simply delete unwanted files. Disk cleanup may also be a good option.
Try to use minimal animations and visual effects.
Delete temporary files regularly.
Check background processes using Task Manager and disable third-party programs or software accordingly. Avoid making changes to system processes.
Keep browser plugins to a minimum and prefer a limited number of tabs at a time.
Use good quality anti-virus with real-time protection. But make sure that it is not taking too much RAM or CPU. If this happens, better change your anti-virus.
Make sure your computer does not heat up so much. If it does, check out its air vents.

There are a few other things to keep your computer system running at an optimal level. To read a detailed guide to fix a slow computer, you should see how to speed up computer?

Conclusion

Sometimes, it is easy to fix problems and speed up your computer. But this is possible only when there is a problem with settings or some other software related problem. But sometimes, you have no other option than to update the components/hardware of your computer system or go for whole new setup.


What others reading:


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What is HTTP? Definition and Working

This article is designed to help people learn the basics of HTTP along with the topics such as what is HTTP, working of HTTP, and the advantages of HTTP.

What is HTTP

What is HTTP?

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is a networking protocol used for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for World Wide Web (WWW); it means that it transfers the data (i.e., text, images, audio, video, etc.) on WWW.

In other words, HTTP establishes communication between different systems to transfer the hypertext from client-end to the server-end. It basically allows the transmission of data from a web server to a web browser in order to display web pages to the users.

HTTP is also known as a ‘stateless system' because each command is executed separately, without using the reference of the previous run command.

How does HTTP work?

HTTP works in the request and response cycles of the client requesting the web page. Suppose you want to access any webpage from the server using your web browser. You enter http:// in the browser's URL bar before the domain, which tells the browser to connect over HTTP. The HTTP GET request is generated by the browser and sent across the Internet.


As soon as the original server receives the HTTP request, it generates an HTTP response back to the user's browser. If the connection is successfully established with the response code HTTP/1.1 200 OK, a webpage will be provided on a browser. If there is a problem with the HTTP request or response, you will have a status code on your browser so that you can better troubleshoot the issue.

HTTP is considered a less secure connection. It is because HTTP requests are sent to the host server in plain text, whatever the user has entered into the text fields of the web page. This is risky in cases where the user enters important information such as credit card details or any other personal details. Hackers or anyone who is monitoring a session can easily read text data sent or received over HTTP.
What is HTTP - How does http work

Advantages of HTTP

It can be implemented with other protocols on the Internet or other networks.

Web pages are stored as a cache in computers and the Internet, making it easily and quickly accessible.

It is platform-independent, thus, supports cross-platform porting.

It does not require runtime support.

It is usable on firewalls, increasing the potential for global applications.

It is not connection-oriented, therefore, there will be no network overhead when creating and maintaining session state and information.


What others reading:


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USB Full Form: Meaning of USB in Computer

When it comes to connecting computers to other devices, USB is the most popular and stable option. USB helps us connect keyboard, mouse, digital camera, printer, scanner, external hard disk, external CD / DVD reader, etc. Although USB is very useful, most people do not know the full form of USB.

USB Full Form

In this article, we are discussing the basic knowledge of USB, such as what is a USB full form, what is USB, a brief history of USB, its features, advantages, disadvantages, and more.

What is the full form of USB?

USB is an abbreviation used for "Universal Serial Bus". It is the most common type of port in a computer system, which helps users connect a variety of devices and peripherals to a computer. Some common devices that use USB to connect to computers are keyboards, mouse, printers, and scanners. Besides, we can connect external storage devices, digital cameras, phones, and many more devices using USB.

The full form of URL can be explained as:

U Universal
S Serial
B Bus

Let’s talk about what USB is:

What is USB?

Universal Serial Bus is the most common type of computer port that allows communication across different devices and the host controller (e.g., computer system). It helps in transferring the data and the electric supply between various peripheral devices, such as mouse, keyword, printer, external storage devices, media devices, etc. 

In this technological era, USB is the primary medium for transferring the data and power supply between computers and other electronic devices. Some common USB versions are USB 1.0, USB 2.0, and USB 3.0. 


A Brief History of USB

In 1994, a group of seven companies worked together to develop an easy connection of devices with computers. Finally, USB was developed in collaboration with companies such as Microsoft, IBM, Compaq, Intel, DEC, NEC, and Nortel. They manufactured USB devices that worked with computers and laptops at acceptable speeds. Also, USB was designed to work on multiple platforms such as Windows, Linux, Mac, etc. 

Before USB was introduced, computers had ports that helped connect different devices for data transfer. Each peripheral device such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, or scanner has its own separate port. However, the main issue with using these ports to connect to computers was their slow speed. Typically, data transfer speed between serial and parallel ports ranged between 100 kB/s to 450 kB/s. In addition to the slow speed, many devices encountered incompatibility issues and problems with multiple interfaces. This is why the need for USB emerged.

How can we connect devices using USB on a Computer?

Connecting devices to a computer via USB is not rocket science. It is very simple and easy to use. We only need to insert the device using any USB port of the computer. Most USB devices support the 'plug and play' nature, and so we don't need to do anything to start using such devices. Once we insert these types of devices, the computer will automatically detect the device and set up to work on it. The configuration of such devices is so fast that they do not even need to reboot the computer system. 

However, some devices may come with drivers that we must first install on our computers to start using those devices. This should be done only once. After installing the drivers, the devices start working as usual.

Depending on the size, USB controllers can be divided into the following three types:

Standard Size USB
Micro Size USB
Mini Size USB


Characteristics of USB

Some essential characteristics of USB are listed below:

A single USB host controller can be used to connect up to 127 peripherals.
Modern computers are coming with USB 3.0 which has a maximum speed of up to 625 MB/s. 
Most USB devices support the 'plug and play’ mechanism. This means devices do not require additional software to start working on the computer. 
Some USB devices come with power-saving mode. This means that devices will automatically go into sleep-mode when the computer system is idle for a long time.
Most USB devices can use power from a computer without the need for an external power supply. For example- keyboard, mouse, external storage device, etc.

Advantages of USB

The following are the advantages of USB:

USB is a comparatively less expensive option to connect the devices.
Because of the true 'plug and play' nature, USB is very easy to use.
A variety of connector types and sizes are available.
USB uses a connector system that is quite robust in nature.
The length of the USB and the number of USB ports can be increased by connecting the USB hub. However, the maximum number of peripherals that can be attached to a single host controller cannot exceed 127.

Disadvantages of USB

The following are the disadvantages of USB:


The length of the USB cables is limited.
Few modern peripheral devices need sustained speed, which is not possible with USB.
The overall capability and performance of USB are limited.
Single messages can be transferred between the peripheral and the host at a time.
Broadcasting is not supported over USB.

Summary

USB (stands for ‘Universal Serial Bus’) is the most commonly used type of cross-platform connection technology that is used to connect various devices with computers. It is supported by most operating systems and can only be used by inserting the device into the computer's USB port.




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