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What is HTTPS: Meaning of HTTPS

This article is designed to help people learn the basics of HTTPS along with the topics such as what is HTTPS, working of HTTPS, and the advantages of HTTPS.

What is HTTPS

What is HTTPS?

HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) is an encrypted version of HTTP. It is not actually the opposite of HTTP. Instead, it is an improved version of HTTP. HTTPS uses a combination of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). This establishes a secure encrypted connection between the host server and the browser.

In HTTPS, transactions are carried out with the help of a key-based encryption algorithm. The public key infrastructure (PKI) is used because it is supported by most web browsers, while the private key is used by the webserver of the particular website the user wants to access. The distribution of public keys is done through certificates that are maintained by web browsers. 


When a client starts a connection with a host server, the two devices use the public and private key to agree on new keys, known as session keys, to encrypt further communications between them. Encryption keys are exchanged between the host server and the web browser before the actual data or hypertext.

How does HTTPS work?

Just like HTTP, HTTPS is also used to request web data and display it on the web browser. But, HTTPS has a slightly different working process. Unlike HTTP, HTTPS encrypts requests and responses so an intercepting hacker would not see the actual text a user has entered. Instead, the hacker will see random characters and would not be able to understand it due to the encryption.

The SSL certificate is responsible to encrypt the information that the user enters on the site. The information or data is converted into random code. In addition, TLS provides an extra layer of security. TLS helps provide data integrity, which helps prevent data from being modified or corrupted and authenticated, proving to your users that they are communicating with the intended website.

What is HTTPS - How does https work

Advantages of HTTPS

It encrypts the connection and helps users to do secure online transactions such as online banking.

It uses SSL technology to protect user information from unauthorized sources which builds the trust of users.

Typically, HTTPS uses the redirect option to provide increased security. This means that if a user enters http: // instead of https://, it will automatically redirect to an https:// and establish a secure connection.

An independent authority verifies the identity of the owner of the certificate. Therefore, each SSL certificate contains unique, certified information about the certificate owner.


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What is HTTP: Full Form of HTTP

This article is designed to help people learn the basics of HTTP along with the topics such as what is HTTP, working of HTTP, and the advantages of HTTP.

What is HTTP

What is HTTP?

HTTP is an abbreviation for ‘HyperText Transfer Protocol’. It is a networking protocol used for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for World Wide Web (WWW); it means that it transfers the data (i.e., text, images, audio, video, etc.) on WWW.

In other words, HTTP establishes communication between different systems to transfer the hypertext from client-end to the server-end. It basically allows the transmission of data from a web server to a web browser in order to display web pages to the users.

HTTP is also known as a ‘stateless system' because each command is executed separately, without using the reference of the previous run command.

How does HTTP work?

HTTP works in the request and response cycles of the client requesting the web page. Suppose you want to access any webpage from the server using your web browser. You enter http:// in the browser's URL bar before the domain, which tells the browser to connect over HTTP. The HTTP GET request is generated by the browser and sent across the Internet.


As soon as the original server receives the HTTP request, it generates an HTTP response back to the user's browser. If the connection is successfully established with the response code HTTP/1.1 200 OK, a webpage will be provided on a browser. If there is a problem with the HTTP request or response, you will have a status code on your browser so that you can better troubleshoot the issue.

HTTP is considered a less secure connection. It is because HTTP requests are sent to the host server in plain text, whatever the user has entered into the text fields of the web page. This is risky in cases where the user enters important information such as credit card details or any other personal details. Hackers or anyone who is monitoring a session can easily read text data sent or received over HTTP.
What is HTTP - How does http work

Advantages of HTTP

It can be implemented with other protocols on the Internet or other networks.

Web pages are stored as a cache in computers and the Internet, making it easily and quickly accessible.

It is platform-independent, thus, supports cross-platform porting.

It does not require runtime support.

It is usable on firewalls, increasing the potential for global applications.

It is not connection-oriented, therefore, there will be no network overhead when creating and maintaining session state and information.


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Top 25 RPA Interview Questions

RPA Interview Questions

Most frequently asked important RPA Interview Questions are described below:

Quick Links



1) What is RPA?

RPA stands for ‘Robotic Process Automation’. RPA allows organizations to use software robots that can mimic human actions. These software robots automate human tasks and accomplish them in the same way that a human in an organization is doing them in systems, machines, or applications.

Robotic- The entity that mimics human actions is defined as robots (can be physical or virtual).

Process- The series of steps that lead to an effective activity can be defined as a process.

Automation- An activity that is used to complete any process or task without human intervention can be defined as automation.

2) What are the applications of RPA?

The most popular applications of RPA are:

Data Entry
Data Migration
Data Extraction
Invoice processing or bill creation
Report Generation
Price Comparison
Onboarding and maintaining user data
Information Validation
Barcode Scanning

3) What are the characteristics of RPA?

RPA has the following characteristics:

Code-Free- There is no need to have coding skills to use RPA tools. One can easily start using RPA tools with some training. RPA tools provide a flowchart-like interface that can be used to graphically link, or drag-drops icons to represent steps in a process.

User-Friendly- RPA tools include a user-friendly interface. They can be easily used with fewer IT skills or without any special knowledge.

Non-Disruptive- RPA avoids complexity and provides simple and straightforward transformation.

Efficient- RPA tools are created to avoid mistakes as a human could do. Once the software bots are configured with proper rules and regulations, they execute the same process without mistakes.

4)  What are the most popular RPA tools?

Some of the most popular RPA tools are:


UiPath
Blue Prism
Automation Anywhere
WorkFusion
OpenSpan
OpenConnect
Pega
Contextor

5) What are the different types of RPA tools?

We can divide RPA tools into the following categories:

Excel Automation and Macros- These are used for simple and basic processes to automate them.

Programmable Solution Bots- These are used to interact with other systems depending on the requirements of the client or organization.

Self-Learning Tools- These tools are used to analyze human actions and repeat them on different platforms.

Cognitive Automation Bots- These are used to handle unstructured data, and make appropriate decisions according to the complex, unstructured input.

6) What are the benefits of RPA?

The following are the benefits of RPA:

Faster- With the software robots, you can operate the processes 24/7 and with a faster speed when compared to human beings.

Cost-Effective- It can help you automate all the manual, repetitive, and rule-based digital processes with the help of software robots. Thus, it reduces the size of the workforce required to complete those tasks.

Accuracy- It provides accuracy and consistency with standardized processes.

Increased Customer Satisfaction- It helps organizations to build better relations with the customers with its fast, consistent performance.

7) What do you understand by RPA Bots? What are the steps to create an RPA bot?

RPA Bots (or Robots) are the virtual bots. They are created with the Bot creator tools such as Blue Prism, UiPath or Automation Anywhere, etc.

To create RPA bots, we are required to follow the given steps:


First, record a task.
Second, implement into RPA model.
Third, test the bot.
Last, upload the bots to execute tasks and perform automation.

8) What are the different types of bots in RPA? Describe each in short.

The RPA has the following bots:

TaskBot- These are used to manage repetitive, rule-based processes in frontend. For example- HR Sector, Procure-to-pay, Quote-to-cash, etc.

MetaBot- These are used to manage complex, scalable processes. These facilitate scalability with the latest integration. These types of bots are usually used for Enterprise automation that requires minimum maintenance.

IQBot- These are used to manage fuzzy rules. These types of bots can learn and enhance process automation.

Types of RPA Bots - RPA Interview Questions

9) How much time an RPA implementation can take? Do we need to change the entire IT infrastructure?

Typically, an RPA implementation is deployed in a few weeks. But, it can take more time according to the complexity of the processes.

There is no need to change the entire IT infrastructure to implement RPA. It can work with existing systems and machines.

10) What are the important steps to be followed by the organization looking to implement RPA?

The following steps should be followed by any organization for successful RPA implementation:

Identify automation opportunities.
Optimize the selected processes.
Develop a suitable Business Case.
Choose the appropriate RPA vendor.
Generate the RPA development model.
Start the development of RPA bots.

11) Does RPA allow auditing of the processes? Also mention, why auditing can be beneficial?

Yes, RPA allows auditing processes. It can be beneficial to know about the new strategies that can be easily adapted for the growth of the organization.

12) What are the main phases of the RPA life-cycle?

There are mainly four phases in the RPA life-cycle:

Analysis- This is the beginning phase of the RPA life-cycle. In this phase, RPA professionals identify suitable processes for RPA deployment.

Bot Development- In this phase, the development team develops the software bots according to the requirements of the organization.

Testing- The development team tests the developed software bots and perform some other quality checks required for the automation tasks.

Deployment and Maintenance- In the last phase, the deployment and maintenance of the software bots are done by the development team.

RPA Life Cycle - RPA Interview Questions

13) What is Process Studio in RPA?

A Process Studio is one of the most important features of any RPA tool. It allows you to develop the actual flow of the processes that you want to automate. It provides control loops, variables, and many other business logic that can be used to form a sequenced business flow. The basic aim of Process Studio is to provide you a platform to configure rules and regulations for the RPA software bots. The sequenced processes in a process studio are almost similar to the flowchart.

14) What is the process recorder in RPA?

Each RPA tool has different features to make the automation process easier and faster. Most of the tools include a feature of Process Recorder. The Process Recorder allows users to record the actions while executing a business process or any other business-related digital task. After that, it helps with automation according to the recorded actions. It is comparatively fast and accurate than human beings.

15) What is mean by Workflow Design?

Workflow design is a graphical structure of the sequence of codes. It consists of several conditions and decision-based tasks that can be used to automate the processes.

16) What are the limitations of RPA?

Some of the common limitations of RPA are:

RPA does not help for processes that require judgment.
RPA cannot understand non-electronic data which is unstructured.
RPA is not cognitive. Hence, it cannot learn from experiences. It can only be used to automate repetitive, rule-based tasks.

17) Explain different types of logs. Also, mention some log fields.

There are two types of logs used in RPA:

Default Logs (Execution Start, Execution End, Transaction Start, Transaction End, Error Log, and Debugging Log)
User-defined Logs

Mostly used log fields are Messages, Timestamp, ProcessName, FileName, ProcessVersion, and RobotName, etc.

18) What are the main components of the RPA architecture?

Some important RPA components are listed below:

Control Center
Recorder
Development Studio
Bot Runner
Extension / Plugin

19) Name that RPA tool which supports an open platform for automation.

UiPath is one of the RPA tools that support an open platform for automation.


20) What is the main difference between Robotic Process Automation and Artificial Intelligence?

Robotic Process Automation is used to mimic human actions with the help of software bots, whereas Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence in machines that can think, learn and make decisions on specific cases.

21) What according to you is the primary aim of RPA implementation for any organization?

The primary aim of RPA implementation for any organization is to reduce the repetitive and tedious tasks of humans. Therefore, a human can work on those tasks that require human intelligence and judgment.

22) What is the future scope of RPA?

RPA is an emerging technology, and it is increasing in different sectors. The future seems to be bright for RPA because it has several advantages and benefits over manual tasks. Anyone can start a career in RPA with some basic training.

23) Is RPA similar to screen scraping?

No, RPA is not similar to screen scraping. It is much more powerful than screen scraping. RPA is the combination of several technologies, including the screen scraping. The screen scrapping feature in RPA allows users to capture bitmap data from the screen and verify with the existing details to decode it.

24) What do you understand by Information collection in RPA?

Information collection and measurements from different sources help in the configuration of software robots. Therefore, they can be properly developed to execute the operations easily and reliably.

25) What are the important features that you should consider before the selection of an RPA tool?

An RPA tool should have the following features:

It should be simple, scalable and reliable.
It should support multiple frameworks.
It should support all types of test environments.
It should be able to perform database testing.


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What is Cybercrime: Definition & Examples

Internet usage has increased drastically in the last few years, and therefore Internet criminal activities are developing. Most people think that cybercrime is just a criminal activity in which hackers steal the user's financial information. But that is not the only thing. Cybercrime is constantly evolving with new threats coming up every year.
What is Cybercrime

In this article, we will understand what is cybercrime, the definition of cybercrime, the impact of cybercrime, how it works, etc. Let's discuss this:

Introduction to Cybercrime

Cybercrime is commonly called a computer-oriented criminal activity that either uses or targets a network, computer system, or network device. Most cybercriminals commit cybercrimes to make money by targeting individuals. However, some professional cybercriminals can threaten an organization by damaging or disabling the entire network. 

Apart from this, the cybercriminal can also use computers or networks to transfer viruses, malware, pornographic content, illegal information, etc. These activities are usually done to damage computers and their data, for reasons other than just a profit. 

Usually, a primary motive of cybercriminals is to generate profit for them. To do this, cybercriminals may commit a variety of profit-driven criminal activities, such as stealing and reselling identities, getting access to financial accounts, misusing credit card to get money or goods, performing email frauds, trafficking in pornography or intellectual property, accessing government data for theft and resale, etc. To be specific, cybercrime can range from security breaches to identity theft.


Cybercrime Definition

Cybercrime is a type of crime that involves a computer and a network to carry out illegal activities through digital means. This can be done by individuals or small groups of people with little technical knowledge, or by highly organized global criminal groups with relatively skilled developers and professionals.

Skilled cybercriminals use advanced tools and techniques to hide their identity and location. Additionally, some cybercriminal conducts cybercrime from countries where there are weak or no cybercrime laws. This helps in reducing the chances of detection and prosecution of cybercriminals.

Defining Cybercrime

The Department of Justice (DOJ) in the U.S. has divided cybercrime into the following three categories:

Crimes in which the computer acts as a weapon, i.e., performing DoS (denial-of-service) attack, etc.
Crimes in which computer is an accessory to a crime, i.e., storing illegally obtained data into the computer.
Crimes in which the computing device is the target, i.e., to get access to a computer or network.


These are the crimes that distinguish cybercrimes from traditional crimes. It only states that cybercrime is an attack on information about individuals, enterprises, or governments. These attacks occur on virtual bodies of individuals or enterprises (it is nothing but a set of informational attributes on the Internet).

In addition, the US has signed the European Convention of Cybercrime. Accordingly, anything including the following is considered cybercrime:

Selling illegal items online.
Illegal gambling.
Infringing copyright.
Illegally intercepting or stealing data.
Soliciting, producing, or processing child pornography.
Interfering with systems in a way that compromises a network.

Types of Cybercrime

There are several different types of cybercrime; however, some specific types of cybercrime are listed below:

Theft of financial or payment-related information (i.e., credit card details).
Email and Internet-based fraud.
Theft and sale of enterprise information.
Identity fraud (stealing and misusing personal information).
Cyberextortion (asking for money to stop threatening)
Ransomware attacks (a part of cyberextortion)
Cyberespionage (getting access to government data or company’s data)
Cryptojacking (mining cryptocurrency using unauthorized resources)

What is Cybercrime - Types of Cybercrime

The Impact of Cybercrime

It is difficult to accurately assess the actual impact of cybercrime. The impact of cybercrime can be devastating due to the high risk of data loss and financial impact. The effects of cybercrime can be classified into the following three categories:

For Individuals

The impact of cybercrime can be mostly seen on individuals. There can be issues like data breaches, identity theft, or trafficking to malicious sites, etc. with the devices. Due to this, one may see suspicious charges on credit cards and loose access to their financial accounts. Additionally, cybercriminals may misuse data stored on devices for harassment and blackmailing.

For Businesses

Businesses may suffer from sensitive data loss, financial loss, or brand damage, etc. It can directly affect the value of a company, the share price, and can also cause loss of reputation, customers, etc.

If companies fail to protect customer data, they will also have to pay fines and penalties. In addition, a cybercriminal may secretly sell the company's sensitive data to other companies.

For Government

This is a very important offense when accessing government data for misuse. Cybercriminals use advanced tools and technologies to gain access to the government's highly sensitive data. The main purpose of targeting government data is to damage data or sell national security and defense data.

Cybercrime Example

The most common examples of Cybercrime include the followings:


DDoS Attack

One of the most commonly seen examples of cybercrime is a distributed DoS attack. These attacks are mainly performed to shut down systems or networks.

Malware

Malware is used to infect systems or networks and harm users by damaging their software, data, or entire systems. Malware is often used to encrypt or shut down the targeted devices until a ransom is paid.

Phishing

Cybercriminals usually send fraudulent emails or messages to victims and redirect them to fake sites. The site can be an exact copy of any popular site and looks trustworthy. Because of this, users enter their personal information such as usernames, passwords, bank details, or other important data, without knowing that these details are directly reaching cybercriminals.

Credential Attack

A credential attack is the most common example of cybercrime, where a cybercriminal aims to steal information about a user's financial accounts. In most cases, this type of attack is carried out using brute-force by installing the Keylogger software, which secretly logs everything that the user enters via the keyboard.

Website Hijacking

Another common example of cybercrime is website hacking where cybercriminals try to gain access to the website and change or remove content without authorization. In order to perform this type of attack, cybercriminal usually inserts malicious code into a website using the SQL (Structured Query Language) injection method. 

How to know if I’m targeted by cybercrime?

It is not easy to find out if a person is targeted by cybercriminals or has been a victim of cybercrime. However, the following signs may be an indication that something is suspicious and may be the cause of cybercrime:


Malware infection: Computer or other devices may start running slowly even when there is no heavy applications are running. Additionally, several error messages may occur on the screen.

Keylogger: There can be various suspicious icons on your machine. Also, there can be duplicate text issue with whatever you type or paste using the machine.

Botnet: The computer may take a long time to shut down or not shut down properly. In addition, there can be several other activities such as programs running slowly, unable to download windows and antivirus updates, fan running so fast even in the ideal state, etc. It is very difficult to detect if your machine is infected with a botnet.

Phishing or pharming attack: You may see an unknown or suspicious deduction on your credit card or other compromised accounts.

Cryptojacking: You will notice a decrease in performance even performing very basic tasks on the computer. Also, there can be a hike in electric bills due to heavy resource consumption.

Conclusion

If sudden unexpected activities are happening on your computer, tablet, mobile, or any other network device then there may be a reason for cybercriminals activities. Therefore, if your device behaves strangely and sounds suspicious, then advice should be taken from cyber experts. If you have been targeted by cybercrime, it is better to disconnect the device from the network and take some time to report cybercrime using another secure device.


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