Subscribe To Get All The Latest Updates!

email updates

Latest Tutorial


Apache Tutorial


Popular Tutorial




Recent Posts

SMPS Full Form: Meaning of SMPS in Computer

In the field of computers and electronics, the term SMPS is quite common and has been talked about a lot. SMPS is one of the important components of a computer. But the first question that comes to mind is - what is the full form of SMPS.
 
SMPS Full Form

In this article, we will learn what SMPS is, what the SMPS full form is, a brief history of SMPS, how SMPS works, its functions, features, types, and more.
 

What is the full form of SMPS?

SMPS is an abbreviation used for ‘Switched Mode Power Supply’. Sometimes, it can also be referred to as ‘Switching Mode Power Supply’. SMPS is one of the important parts required for a motherboard or PCB (printed circuit board) to function in a computer system. The full form of the SMPS can be detailed as:

S Switched
M Mode
P Power
S Supply

Brief History about SMPS

SMPS was first introduced in 1977. It was used in Apple II. Later in 1980, SMPS was used with a synthesized signal generator providing an alternative to very lightweight computers.

In the mid-1800s, when there was no SMPS, the induction coil was the first component that helped generate high voltages. However, the use of the induction coil was replaced by several inventions over time. Before SMPS, the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) was widely used for power devices to switch power supplies. MOSFET was developed in 1959.


How does SMPS work?

SMPS uses a switching regulator to regulate and stabilize the output voltage by turning on and off load-current. The mean voltage between the two states (on and off) is the appropriate power for the device. Unlike linear power supplies, SMPS pass-transistors switch between low-dissipation, full-on & full-off states, and remain in high-dissipation cycles for very short periods, reducing energy waste to the maximum extent.

Function of SMPS

The primary function of SMPS is to convert unregulated AC or DC voltage into the computer acceptable regulated DC voltage. It uses a power control electronic mechanism to convert electrical power efficiently and minimizes the power loss. 

Characteristics of SMPS

The main characteristics of SMPS include the followings:

SMPS is highly power efficient. It provides an efficiency of around 65-70%.
SMPS is capable of handling temperature proficiently. The temperature may rise to a 20-40 degree Celsius maximum.
The magnetic material used in SMPS is known as Ferrite Core.

Types of SMPS

SMPS is mainly divided into the following four types on the basis of circuit topology:

Buck: In this type of SMPS, the current remains continuous at the output.
Boost: In this type of SMPS, the current remains continuous at the Input.
Buck-Boost: In this type of SMPS, the current on both input and output remains discontinuous.
Split-pi: In this type of SMPS, the current remains bidirectional.


Advantages of SMPS

The following are the main advantages of SMPS:

SMPS is small in size, and hence it is also lightweight.
Anti-interference in SMPS is powerful.
SMPS consumes approximately 60–70% of power, making it ideal for use.
The output range of SMPS is high, so SMPS is highly efficient.

Disadvantages of SMPS

The following are the main disadvantages of SMPS:

SMPS is very complex in nature.
SMPS consists of a single output voltage.
SMPS can only be used as a step-down regulator.
The output reflection in SMPS is high, and its management is weak.

Summary

This article states that SMPS (stands for Switched-Mode Power Supply) is one of the most important parts of a computer system, and it is not possible to start a computer without SMPS. SMPS mainly helps the computer to convert the incoming voltage into an acceptable form in the computer.


What others reading:


Read More

Full Form of Computer: What is Computer?

Have you ever wondered whether a computer is just a word of its own meaning or is it a word that has a full form? In this article, we have discussed and clarified the doubts about the full form of computer. Let's understand it:


Full Form of Computer

What is the full form of Computer?

The term ‘Computer’ is derived from the Latin word ‘computare’, which is defined as- “to calculate”, “to count” or ‘to sum up”, etc. That means the term Computer is not an acronym. It is just a word that has its own meaning. However, there are a few hypothetical full forms of the computer.  


The most commonly used full form of Computer is ‘Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research’. This full form of computer is just a myth because it does not make a proper sense. It is because when computers were invented, they were kind of calculating machines only. The full form of the computer can be detailed as:


C Common
O Operating
M Machine
P Purposely
U Used for
T Technological and
E Educational
R Research

Some other forms of Computer are as follows:



Common Oriented Machine Particularly Used for Trade Education and Research

Common Operations Made Possible Under Technical Engineering Researches

Computing Oriented Manipulation Programming Used in Technology Education and Research

Common Operating Machine Particularly Used for Training, Education, and Reporting

Capable Of Making Perfectly Uncomplicated Tasks Extremely Rigorous

All of these are just hypothetical full forms of the Computer. 


What is Computer?

According to the definition of the Computer, “A computer is a programmable electronic machine designed to take input, perform prescribed arithmetic and logical operations at fast speeds, and provide the output of these operations.” 


Brief History of Computer

The first mechanical computer was introduced in 1837 by Charles Babbage. It was called 'Analytical Engine'. It was the first general-purpose computer. Charles Babbage is known as the father of the computer.



Functions of Computer

A computer usually performs the following four functions:


Input: takes raw data from input devices.
Processing: performs arithmetical and logical operations.
Output: provides the result to output devices after processing.
Storage: stores the results into storage devices if desired.

Generations of Computer

In the first generation (1946 - 1959), computers were based on Electronic Valves (Vacuum Tubes).
In the second generation (1959 – 1965), computers were based on Transistors.
In the third generation (1965 – 1971), computers were based on Integrated Circuits (ICs).
In the fourth generation (1971 – 1980), computers were based on Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) Circuits.
In the fifth generation (1980 – Present), computers are based on different mechanisms, such as Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Parallel Processing Hardware.

Types of Computer

There are basically four types of computer, such as:



• Mainframe Computer

• Microcomputer

• Mini Computer

• Super Computer


Advantages of Computer

The following are the main advantages of the computer system:


Incredible Speed

Constant Accuracy

Storage Availability

Multitasking Support

Data Security and Privacy


Disadvantages of Computer

The following are the main disadvantages of the computer system:


Unemployment 
Cyber Crimes 
Improper Use 
Spread of False or Inappropriate Content 
Negative Impact on the Environment

Read Complete ArticleAdvantages and Disadvantages of Computer


Computer Related Full Forms

The following table displays other most common full forms related to the computer:



Abbreaviation Full Form
PC Personal Computer
RAM Random Access Memory
ROM Read Only Memory
CPU Central Processing Unit
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
CU Control Unit
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
CD Compact Disk
DVD Digital Versatile Disk
NTFS New Technology File System
FAT File Allocation Table
HDD Hard Disk Drive
SSD Solid State Drive
USB Universal Serial Bus
DOS Disk Operating System
E-Main Electronic Mail
Wi-fi Wireless Fidelity


Summary

The article simply makes it clear that a computer is not an abbreviation and has no definitive full form. However, there are some imaginary complete forms that people are using for computers.



What others reading:


Read More

HTTPS Full Form: Meaning of HTTPS in Computer

You may have seen https:// before a domain address in the browser's URL bar when using the Internet. But, have you ever wondered what HTTPS is and what the full form of HTTPS is. In this article, we have explained what is HTTPS, what is HTTPS full form, its working, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages.

HTTPS Full Form

What is the full form of HTTPS?

HTTPS is an abbreviation for ‘HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure’. It is an encrypted version of HTTP. HTTPS uses a combination of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) that helps establish a secure encrypted connection between the host server and the browser.

What is HTTPS?

Just like the HTTP, HTTPS is also a networking protocol used for collaborative, distributed, hypermedia information systems. However, it is secure when compared to HTTP, which is a non-secure application protocol. HTTPS is not actually the opposite of HTTP. Instead, it is a combination of the HTTP with the TLS/SSL protocols that help establish encrypted communication and secure identification of a network web server.

What is Hypertext?

Hypertext is a specific type of text that contains a link. This means that if we click on a word or text on a webpage that has a link with it, we will be redirected to a new web page based on the specified link.


How does HTTPS work?

When we enter https:// in the browser's URL bar before the domain name, it instructs the browser to connect over HTTPS. In this case, the browser generates a GET request and transfers it across the web. Once the target server receives this request, it generates an HTTPS response back to the user's browser. If the connection is established properly, a web page will be retrieved from the server and displayed on the browser. Otherwise, there will be an HTTPS status code describing the corresponding errors.

In HTTPS, transactions are carried out with the help of a key-based encryption algorithm. The public key infrastructure (PKI) is used because it is supported by most web browsers, while the private key is used by the webserver of the particular website the user wants to access. The distribution of public keys is done through certificates that are maintained by web browsers. 

When a client (often a user’s browser) starts a connection with a host server, the two devices use the public and private key to agree on new keys, known as session keys, to encrypt further communications between them. Encryption keys are exchanged between the host server and the web browser before the actual data or hypertext.


Is HTTPS secure?

Yes, HTTPS is a secured application protocol. Just like HTTP, HTTPS is also used to request web data and display it on the web browser. But, HTTPS has a slightly different working process. Unlike HTTP, HTTPS encrypts requests and responses so an intercepting hacker would not see the actual text a user has entered. Instead, the hacker will see random characters and would not be able to understand it due to the encryption.
How does HTTPS work - HTTPS Full Form

Characteristics of HTTPS

Some of the main characteristics of HTTP are given below:

• It uses powerful public-key cryptography that helps encrypt the connection between a client and a server.

HTTPS encrypts all message substance, including HTTP headers and request/response data. The verification perspective of HTTPS requires a trusted third party to sign server-side digital certificates.

Only the client and the server know what is being transferred or communicated.

HTTPS uses an SSL certificate that helps in gaining SEO (Search Engine Optimization) benefits from Google and other search engines.

Advantages of HTTPS

Some of the main advantages of HTTP are given below:

HTTPS helps secure user's data-in-transit.

It builds user-trust as there will be no 'Not Secure' warning in the browser.

It helps boost SERP (Search Engine Result Page) rankings.

It secures the website from various attacks, such as Phishing, MITM, and many others.


Disadvantages of HTTPS

Some of the main disadvantages of HTTP are given below:

HTTPS is comparatively slower as it takes a little bit of time during encryption.

Because of the encryption process, HTTPS includes extra overhead during data transfer.

You have to pay for an SSL certificate to use HTTPS.

It can cause browser caching issues for legacy browsers (e.g., IE6).

Summary

It is a good idea to build a website over HTTPS or move from HTTP to HTTPS. Previously, HTTPS was mostly used by websites that have online payment gateway support. This helped secure confidential details of users such as credit card details and other personal information. But, after Google recommended sites to use HTTPS to achieve better search engine rankings, most sites switched to HTTPS. Nowadays, almost every website uses HTTPS.


What others reading:


Read More

Types of Cybercrime and How to Fight Them

Cybercrime is commonly called a computer-oriented criminal activity that either uses or targets a network, computer system, or network device. It is constantly evolving with new threats coming up every year. In order to keep you safe from cybercrime, it is necessary to have knowledge about the types of cybercrime.
Types of Cybercrime

In this article, we have defined the most common types of cybercrime. This article will help you to know what kind of dangers you should know about protecting yourself in the online medium. 

Categories of Cybercrime

Cybercrime can be divided into the following three categories:

Crime against Individual

This category of cybercrime usually involves one person that might be distributing malicious software or suspicious information online. Apart from this, crimes against individuals might include identity theft, cyber harassment, staling, spoofing, distribution of child pornography, credit card fraud, etc.

Crime against Property

This category of cybercrime includes crimes that occur against property, such as a computer or a network. Cybercriminals might steal a person's bank or credit card details, gain access to funds, make online purchases, or perform phishing attacks to retrieve a person's information, etc. These crimes usually include hacking, DDoS attacks, cyber and typosquatting, virus distribution, copyright infringement, etc.

Crime against Government

This category of cybercrime includes crimes that occur against the government. These crimes are the most serious offense. It is also referred to as Cyber Terrorism. Typically, these crimes are committed by the terrorists or by the governments of enemy nations. These crimes include accessing confidential information, hacking, cyber warfare, pirated software, etc.


Types of Cybercrime

There are various types of cybercrime, but all such types of cybercrime fall into the following three situations:

Crime in which the computer acts as a weapon
Crime in which computer is an accessory to a crime
Crime in which the computing device is the target

These are the situations that form the type of cybercrime. These crimes distinguish cybercrimes from traditional crimes.

Let’s discuss the most common types of cybercrime:
Types of Cybercrime

Phishing

A phishing attack involves attackers sending several spam mails having malicious attachments or links. Once a receiver clicks on a link, he/she may be redirected to a malicious site asking the receiver to respond with confidential details, such as login credentials, billing information, etc. This type of attack may also take place through text messages, websites, or even social media platforms. 

Hacking

Hacking is a type of cybercrime act where an intruder gets access to a few or complete functions within a system without your permission. Hackers (people who perform hacking) are tending to be computer programmers and they have an advanced understanding of computers. However, they misuse this knowledge for performing illegal activities, such as accessing corporate and government accounts, and stealing their financial data or other important information. 


Computer Viruses

A computer virus is one of the most destructive types of attacks where cybercriminals gain unauthorized access to the system and steal personal information and other important data. Mostly, computer viruses are attached to infected software that spreads across other installed software. Viruses can come to your system through removable devices and the internet. Without proper scanning and removing them from your system, the next time you start your system, the viruses will run all over again.

Recommended: Types of Computer Viruses

Ransomware

Ransomware is one of the most popular types of malware-based attacks. It enters through a computer network on a local machine and encrypts files using public-key encryption. That means you cannot access encrypted files and the information stored in them. The cybercriminal will then ask for ransom (money) to unlock the files and give your data back.

DDoS Attacks

The DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack is a blatant attempt by cybercriminals to take down a system or network temporarily or completely. This overwhelms a system with multiple connections requests that it cannot handle. Additionally, there may be spam traffic coming from various sources. This eventually leads to server overload. DDoS attacks are used as a distraction technique to allow cybercriminals to hack into the system meanwhile. 


Botnets

Botnets are networks from comprised computers that are controlled externally by remote attackers, known as ‘Bot Herders'. The attackers target other computers and send spams or malware by using these botnets. This type of cybercrime is usually performed against businesses and governments because botnets mainly target the entire IT infrastructure.  

Cyberstalking

This type of cybercrime involves a person being followed by the cybercriminal online. The stalker will follow the target person virtually, including all the activities. Then, the stalker might harass the victim by using social media platforms, mails, or websites, etc. Cyberstalkers first try to know their victims as much as possible and then make them feel afraid or concerned regarding their safety. In most cases, this type of cybercrime is committed against women and children by individual men and pedophiles.

Identity Theft

Identity theft is a specific type of cybercrime in which attackers gain access to the victim's personal information, including passwords, financial accounts, credit cards, and other confidential information. In most cases, cybercriminals use these details to steal money from your accounts, without your knowledge. Additionally, cybercriminals may use your details to commit a crime or claim government benefits, making others think it was you. 


PUPs

PUPs is an acronym for 'Potentially Unwanted Programs'. These are not considered much threatening as compared to other types of cybercrime. These are nothing but a type of malware program that uninstalls important software from your computer system automatically. In addition, PUPs can also remove or change your default search engines within the browsers. They can involve adware and spyware; therefore, it’s a good practice to make use of an antivirus program to prevent any malicious download.

Social Engineering

This type of cybercrime involves criminals making direct contact with the victim through phone, emails, or even in person. Cybercriminals first try to earn trust and then they steal confidential information like passwords, financial accounts data, etc. In most cases, cybercriminals act like a customer service agent of any legitimate company and ask for the important information. Once they get the desired information, they might sell your information or try to steal money from your accounts. 

Online Scams/Frauds

These are crimes that involve spam advertisements or emails offering large rewards or high amounts of money. These offers are presented in such a way that they look very real. Once users click on these malicious advertisements or links, the malware reaches their system and compromises the information.

Exploit Kits

Exploit kits are readymade tools designed by advanced programmers. These tools include vulnerability (bug in codes of the program) that helps gain access to a victim's computer once deployed. Cybercriminals can purchase exploit kits online and use them against different users. The exploit kits receive frequent upgrades just like the other software. These kits are usually purchased via dark web hacking forums.


Prohibited/Illegal Content

This is a specific type of cybercrime that includes the sharing of offensive and inappropriate content over virtual platforms. Cybercriminals distribute offensive materials to make people feel hatred against other people, religions, or countries, etc. Offensive content can include but is not limited to, videos of criminal activities, sexual activities between adults, videos with intense violence, etc. Additionally, it can also contain illegal contents like terrorism supported materials or child exploitation materials.

Spamming

This cybercrime involves criminals using electronic messaging systems to send messages to users. These messages usually consist of malware, fake links of websites, and other malicious software. Email spamming is one of the common spamming methods in which bulk messages are sent to large numbers of users. These messages include deals, and promos from trusted companies to attract users to click on the attachments or the fake links.

Malvertising

Malvertising involves criminals filling websites with several advertisements containing malicious codes or links. Once users click on these advertisements, they will be redirected to fake websites that look like trusted ones. Users will submit the personal details, thinking they are legitimate. This information will further reach to the attackers. Furthermore, the websites can automatically start downloading files containing viruses and other malware. 

Software Piracy

There are many websites that reproduce original content such as songs, movies, books, games, and other software. It falls under the Cybercrime Act as it translates to copyright infringement. Software piracy greatly affects companies and developers as duplicate products lead to huge reductions in their total income.

Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is one of the biggest crimes occurring in the virtual world. It is a form of bullying on the Internet. However, global leaders are aware of this crime and pass laws and enactments that prevent the spread of cyber-attack.

How to Fight Cybercrime

At present, almost all the devices (such as smartphones, tablets, and computers) are connected to the internet. Cybercriminals may use a device to gain access to personal information, business information, confidential government information, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge about preventive measures that can be taken to fight against cybercrime.

Types of Cybercrime - How to fight Cybercrime

The following are some tips that will help you protect your computer and your personal data:

Make use of Anti-virus software and keep it updated.
Keep the operating system and other installed software updated.
Do not install software from untrusted sources.
• Be cautious while browsing the website.
Make sure that websites are safe and genuine before you enter any credentials.
Always use strong passwords with 14+ characters, including upper case, lower case, and numbers.
Flag and report suspicious emails and do not open any attachments.
Do not click on any unfamiliar links or ads.
Do not share suspicious information via digital means unless you are completely sure that it is safe.
Use a VPN service whenever possible.
Keep on tracking your bank statements and other financial accounts.

Conclusion

There can be various ways and types of cybercrime that attackers can use. The only way to protect yourself is to educate yourself about various types of cybercrime and how you can prevent them. Once you are a victim of cybercrime, there is no easy way to get rid of it. 


What others reading:


Read More

Blog with us

CONNECT WITH US

Like Tutorialsmate on Facebook Follow Tutorialsmate on Facebook Add Tutorialsmate on Facebook Subscribe Tutorialsmate on Facebook Follow Tutorialsmate on Facebook Follow Tutorialsmate on Facebook
Get tutorialsmate on Google Play
© 2020 TutorialsMate. Designed by TutorialsMate